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World economy and international relations

THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №2-2010

Zima A. G., Ivanova O. Y., Zyma О. G.
Implementation of the Provisions of the Kyoto Protocol as Precondition of Recovery from the Economic Recession (p. 3 - 8)

The article substantiates the hypothesis that the compliance with the provisions of the Kyoto Protocol must play the decisive role in acceleration of recovery from the economic recession.

Article is written in Russian

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THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №3-2010

Khaustova V. Y., Kurochkina I. G.
The Analysis of Features of the Largest Cross-border transactions of Merges and Acquisition (p. 3 - 11)

In article features of the greatest in the world of cross-border transactions of merges and acquisition are investigated. Their dynamics in quantitative and cost expression, dynamics of the average price of transactions is analyzed. The countries-leaders on the greatest activity in processes of merges and absorption are defined.

Article is written in Ukrainan

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THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №4-2010

Kyzym M. O., Pronoza P. V., Bielikova N. V.
The Analysis of Global Problems of the World Community and the Purposes of a Millenium (p. 3 - 8)

In article sights of scientists at modern global problems of the world community are analyzed. Results of researches on this point in question of scientists and the organizations are considered: the Roman club, the United Nations Organization, the World bank of reconstruction and development, the World Economic Forum. The history of researches of global problems of mankind is analyzed. Author's vision of classification of global problems of mankind is offered.

Article is written in Russian

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Khaustova V. Y., Gromyka N. K.
Currency System and World Crises (p. 9 - 12)

In article the interrelation of world crises with world currency system is analyzed. Stages of development of world currency system, its types and features are considered. The hypothesis that transition to the Jamaican currency system was one of important preconditions of occurrence of a present economic crisis is proved.

Article is written in Russian

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THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №1-2011

Zima A. G.
Interrelation of Economic Development of the Countries, Climate Change and Health of People (p. 3 - 7)

The main correlation elements between the population health and the climate change as a result of human economic activity were researched.

Article is written in Russian

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Khaustova V. Y., Kolodyazhna T. V.
The Analysis of the Basic Waves of Merges and Acquisitions in the World Economy (p. 7 - 16)

In article the basic waves of merges and acquisition (M&A) of the companies in world economy are analyzed. Dynamics of quantity of transactions is considered. Characteristics and features of waves of M&A are allocated. The reasons of their occurrence and end are analyzed.

Article is written in Ukrainan

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THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №2-2011

Pogorletskiy A. I.
International Tax Competition on the Contemporary Period of the World Economy’s Development (p. 3 - 9)

The article under review is devoted to the peculiarities in the international tax competition process in the modern world economy. Changes in the national tax systems of the main participants of the international tax competition under pressure of the global crisis of 2008 – 2011 as well as a convergence of basic principles of national tax policies during the crisis and for postcrisis perspectives are considered. Besides the general situation in the sphere of international tax competition in developed countries on the boundary of XX – XXI centuries as well as during the current global crisis, the author characterizes the competitive tax advantages of the Russian Federation. The main conclusion made by the author – a necessity for tax increasing in the post-crisis world as well as the change of leaders in the international tax competition during the 2010s.

Article is written in Russian

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THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №3-2011

Tischenko A. N.
Competitiveness of Ukraine in the World Rankings (p. 3 - 8)

Article is devoted to the competitiveness of countries and Ukraine’s place in the world community. Considered the most well known rankings of various international financial and social organizations. Showing the position of Ukraine, its advantages and disadvantages.

Article is written in Russian

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Reznikova T. A., Bardadym O. I.
Ways of Increase of Motivation of Innovators to the International Cooperation (p. 9 - 14)

The article considers the important issues of innovators motivation for international collaboration. The intercultural differences of innovators approach to work are investigated. The way of defining of innovators competences level for international collaboration is offered. The formula of financial reward for inventions is suggested. The matrix of different types of innovators ability to execute various international projects is developed.

Article is written in Ukrainan

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THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №4-2011

Matyushenko I. Y., Buntov I. Y.
The synergetic effect of development of nBIC-technologies for solution of global human problems (p. 3 - 13)

The synergetic effect from convergence of nBIC-technologies in the industry and economy is considered. The perspective directions of quality growth of human possibilities by means of his technological reconstruction are shown.

Article is written in Ukrainan

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Khaustova V. Y., Pronoza P. V.
Theoretical aspects of emergence and development of the crisis phenomena in economy (p. 13 - 23)

The article examines genesis of emergence and development of the crisis phenomena in economy of the countries of the world and their research in works of scientists. The main theories explaining the reasons of cyclic crises and chronology of change of views of scientists on recurrence in development of social and economic systems are considered. The essence of the concepts “crisis” and “economic crisis” is defined. Crisis functions in dynamics of development of systems and a crisis stage are considered. As crisis is one of stages of a business cycle, phases of such cycle in economy and main versions of business cycles are considered. Basic clauses of the theory of the crises, which have been formed by the beginning of the XXI century, are specified.

Article is written in Ukrainan

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THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №3-2012

Biryuk S. A., Bіryuk A. S.
Global modification of factors of export-oriented chemical industry enterprises development (p. 3 - 7)

This article deals with process of factors transformation, that determine the export-oriented enterprises development strategy. The influence of global financial and commodity markets trends on the strategy of chemical sector enterprises is determined. The role of ecological factors in the process of strategic plans implementation by the leading participants of the world mineral fertilizers market is defined.

Article is written in Ukrainan

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THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №4-2012

Maliuta I. A.
The Use of Leasing Amongst European SMEs in the Permanent Crisis Economy (p. 4 - 8)

The article analyzes the state of the use of leasing amongst European small and medium enterprises in the permanent сrisis economy. EIB Group measures to ensure the access of SMEs to finance are discovered. The importance of leasing assets securitization is determined. Basic trends and future prospects of European SME financing through leasing are defined.

Article is written in Ukrainan

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Salo I. A.
Main Tendencies of the Nut Market Development in Ukraine and Throughout the World (p. 9 - 12)

The author has determined the peculiarities of functioning and main problems of the nut inland market development, its type and aspect structure, the place of Ukraine in the world’s production and trade with nuts, the tendencies in the formation of price of their varieties as regards different countries as well as the development of nursery practice and establishment of orchards. The processes in the nut world’s market situation formation and current changes have been considered and the purpose fullness of legislative regulating the state support of the industrial nut-growing development proved.

Article is written in Ukrainan

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THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №1-2013

Pronoza P. V.
Pathoeconomy: essence, specific features, hypothesis (p. 7 - 13)

The article considers a new direction of the study of crisis phenomena in economy – pathoeconomy. It analyses its essence and specific features and main tasks. It studies and specifies essence of the “pathology” and “pathological process” notions. It offers a scheme of assessment of the state of health of the human body and its treatment, which is used for development of a methodical approach for assessment of the state of the sectors of economy of the country and their recovery. The article marks out leading sectors and spheres of activity of Ukrainian economy, which can be subject to pathological processes. It formulates a model of a life cycle of development of the sectors of economy. It forms a complex of interdependent hypotheses that form the basis of pathoeconomy.

Article is written in Russian


Shpilevskyi V. V., Sapronov Y. A., Salashenko T. I.
Analytical aspects of assessment of energy dependence in petroleum-deficit countries (p. 14 - 21)

The article presents a methodical approach to assessment of a complete typical energy dependence for petroleum-deficit countries, which takes into account both dependence of the national economy on external supplies of petroleum and dependence on external supplies of light petroleum products and also efficiency of transformation of liquid hydrocarbons into motor fuel. The study, conducted on the basis of European countries, allowed determination of the level of their typical energy dependence. It was established that the majority of European countries are petroleum dependent. The article specifies the following types of dependence: on import of petroleum, on import of petroleum products and on two types of fuel and energy resources. However, in spite of deficit of own reserves of petroleum in European countries, some countries have sufficiently developed petroleum processing complex, which allows them not only satisfaction of own needs, but also export of petroleum products, which reduces their petroleum dependence. The article establishes that Ukraine depends both on petroleum supplies and on petroleum products supplies. The main reasons of high petroleum dependence of the national economy are insufficiency of own reserves of petroleum and outdated scheme of petroleum processing. The conducted clusterisation allowed splitting European countries into 7 groups. The results of clusterisation and study of the problems of the resource cycle of motor fuel of Ukraine helped to establish two possible variants of its development, which are: refusal to have own production of motor fuel or its growth and joining the group of countries that are small exporters. The article explains that development of the resource cycle of the motor fuel of Ukraine is possible only through establishing its production using already available raw materials.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Iastremska O. A.
Modern world tendencies of tourism development (p. 22 - 27)

The article presents revealed tendencies of development of tourism at the world level under conditions of globalisation, the main of which are increase of tourist flows, increase of requirements to quality and changes in orientation of tourist services, growth of diversity of tourist products and use of modern information technologies when providing tourist services. The latter tendency determines conditions of a necessity to activate tourist companies in information positioning in the virtual environment on the basis of the use of brands. The article presents recommendations on formation of brand-sites for tourist companies, which lie in the use of a friendly interface – their introduction would allow simplification of the search for information about tourist companies and would increase interest of the customers. The article presents a list and content of the sections of the concept of the brand of a tourist company, which consists of a general, entrepreneurial, marketing, legal, investment, cultural and historical, psychological and futurological sections.

Article is written in Ukrainan


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №2-2013

Orlov P. A.
World financial and economic crisis and problems of social responsibility of economic subjects (p. 6 - 11)

The article considers the concept of social responsibility of economic subjects with the emphasis on impermissibility of avoidance to pay taxes and also on a necessity to practice socially responsible marketing. Active struggle with avoidance to pay taxes is carried out in EU. The crisis made European countries fight with the evil, which was earlier created by some of them with benefit for themselves. Small attention is paid to the struggle with this evil in Ukraine in spite of a high share of shadow economy. The article provides examples of social irresponsibility of marketing in chase of profit, revealed in industrially developed countries and Ukraine. They cause huge irreplaceable damage to society. The article justifies a conclusion that in countries, economic systems of which cannot ensure a proper level of state regulation of economy and social responsibility of economic subjects, the population is destined to be exploited by socially irresponsible subjects of business, moral and physical degradation and even extinction. The concept of socially responsible marketing, based only on the growth of consciousness of company owners and social initiative, cannot be realised widely.

Article is written in Russian


Navrotska N.
Main tendencies of globalisation of savings and investments in the world economy (p. 12 - 19)

The article analyses modern tendencies of movement of world savings, economies and investments. It identifies main directions of structural shifts in these processes, among which are advanced dynamics of growth of savings of developing countries, especially China, BRICS countries and petroleum exporters, absolute and relative reduction of the share of savings of developed countries with simultaneous tendency of increase of savings in developing countries. It clarifies that investments are much lower than savings in the majority of developing countries. In developed countries volumes of investments are bigger than savings. With dropping volumes of savings, the developed countries started to invest into national economies partially from savings of developing countries. The most vivid is significant lag of savings from investments in the US. Due to irregularity of distribution of investments and savings, disbalances in the world financial system increase and result in excessive or insufficient economies and investments for internal needs of countries. The conducted analysis shows that in the result of complication of economic processes, the modern concepts of “savings”, “economies” and “investments” do not reflect in full real tendencies of the economies-investments processes in the global economy. That is why, it is necessary to further specify components of these categories, which in modern conditions become more complex, especially with consideration of influence of certain additional quantitative and qualitative parameters (intellectual capital, intangible assets, quality of investments, capital intensiveness of economy, etc.).

Article is written in Ukrainan


Stryzhychenko K. A.
Formation of a new economic paradigm under conditions of the global financial crisis (p. 20 - 24)

Neo-classical paradigm, in the basis of which there was a free regulation of markets and negation of endogenous long-term crises, showed its incapacity, which resulted in the possibility of origination and development of the financial crisis of 2007. The article studies provisions of the neo-classical paradigm, analyses key consequences of the financial crisis, and considers the 4U concept, which reflects shortcomings of globalisation for the modern world economy. In order to reduce impact of destructive effects of globalisation and to pass to a new paradigm, the article considers a number of statements, which should be realised within the framework of the new paradigm. The article systemises main principles, which lie in the basis of the new economic paradigm.

Article is written in Russian


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №3-2013

Labyntsev M. T., Tsepilova O. S.
Study of interconnection of financial and tax accounting of profit in Russia and abroad (p. 7 - 12)

The article analyses the degree of interconnection of financial and tax accounting of profit in Russia and some foreign countries – USA, France and Germany. The legal principle – common law or unified law – is taken as a criterion. The article shows that existence of the system of tax accounting by one tax (organisation profit tax) separately from the financial accounting in Russia from 2002 is not rational. At present Russia actively develops a variant of making financial accounting and tax accounting closer without a principal reconstruction of norms of tax legislation. Low level of interconnection of tax accounting and financial accounting is characteristic for the USA, which is one of the founders of the British-American (British-American-Dutch in interpretation of some authors) accounting model. The level of interconnection of norms of financial and tax accounting is rather high in France and Germany and the taxation policy of the theoretical base of the accounting system, which allows speaking about the French-German accounting model.

Article is written in Russian


Tischenko A. N., Dorovsky O. V.
Socio-economic significance and characteristic features of pharmacy (p. 13 - 20)

The article considers main factors indicative of significance of the world pharmaceutical industry in the global economy. It shows the total volume of the world pharmaceutical market and regional structure of the world pharmaceutical production. It marks out the leading role of pharmacy in the world innovation and investment processes. It considers the contribution of the pharmaceutical industry in realisation of social functions and its economic impact on macro-economic indicators. It analyses specific features of the pharmaceutical market that are connected with social importance of pharmacy.

Article is written in Russian


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №4-2013

Boguslavskiy Y. I.
Diversification as the basis of globalisation processes (using examples of major companies) (p. 8 - 13)

The goal of the article is generalisation of the world experience of conducting diversification and justification of its influence upon the world globalisation processes. The article considers a number of rather successful trans-national companies both American (Daimler-Benz), West-European (Nokia), Pacific-Asian (Takeda) and Ukrainian (Metinvest), which at one point of their development chose diversification expansion of production and sales, entering, in such a way, the global market. Histories of these companies are not similar, since they were founded and formed in different times under influence of different political and economic situations. The only thing that is similar for all of them is successful use of various methods of diversification, which ensured their success in the international market. Thus, namely diversification became the foundation for globalisation of international economic relations. Merger of companies as a consequence of globalisation influence of diversification processes is not something extraordinary, but also is not common, especially if we speak about major companies that have a huge variety of manufactured products.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Koliada T. A.
Organisation of the long-term budget planning and forecasting: experience of the leading countries of the world (p. 14 - 20)

The goal of the article lies in the study of specific features of organisation of the long-term budget planning and forecasting in the leading countries of the world. Analysing, systemising and generalising experience of organisation of this process at the state level using examples of USA, France, Germany and Japan, the article reveals common regularities and shows the best practice of developing the budget strategy for adaptation and application of these developments in the budget process of Ukraine. In the result of the study the article proves that growth of unfavourable tendencies in socio-economic development of majority of the world countries (ecologic problems, terrorism threats, ageing of population, natural disasters, etc.) results in the growth of dependency of the budget planning on political factors and organisation of management of this process. The article justifies a necessity of establishing close coordination at the inter-ministry level, introduction of clear distribution of duties between the subjects of the budget process with the aim of exclusion of a possibility of political subjectivism, ensuring an objective assessment of the socio-economic situation in the country, and development of realistic macro-economic and budget forecasts. The prospect of further studies in this direction is bringing the necessity of the legislative fixing and regulation of the procedure of development of the budget strategy as an integral component of the budget process of Ukraine, which would allow getting rid of the multi-vector nature of priorities of the state development, balancing the budget receipts and expenditures, creation of an effective mechanism of concentration of resources for solving middle-term and long-term tasks.

Article is written in Ukrainan


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №1-2014

Kyzym M. O., Matyushenko I. Y., Khaustova V. Y., Kosyrieva O. V., Kostenko D. M., Moiseienko Y. M., Buntov I. Y.
Opportunities and threats of WTO membership of Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia (p. 6 - 25)

The article considers the problem of consequences of membership in the World Trade Organisation (WTO) for Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU). The article shows that after Ukraine joined WTO there were some rather significant reductions of tariff rates for Ukrainian products and liberalisation of access to the world markets, at the same time the internal Ukrainian market became more open for imported products. The article studies specific features and changes in the high-technology products market after Ukraine joined WTO. It analyses dynamics of volumes and specific weight of the world export-import of high-technology products and the structure of the world export and import of high technology products, including by individual countries and groups. The article makes a conclusion about a weak high-technology component of the Ukrainian export. It studies the structure of export of high-technology products of EU, CU and Ukraine. It shows that in order to develop the high-technology products market Ukraine needs to develop foreign trade with EU countries and also to continue co-operation with CU countries, in particular, with Russia. The article shows that the aerospace industry products takes the biggest specific weight in the export of high-technology products of Ukraine. It considers prospects of development of civil aircraft production in the world and Ukraine under the modern conditions. It analyses strengths and weaknesses of the aircraft construction industry and also threats and opportunities for aircraft construction of Ukraine due to external environment influence. The article shows that Ukraine cannot keep national aircraft building on its own, that is why it is necessary to develop close co-operation both with Russian enterprises and with the countries of the Western Europe. It offers recommendations on preservation of production potential of the aircraft construction industry of Ukraine. The final conclusion of the study is the following: despite the world financial and economic crisis, diversification and change of the Ukrainian export structure is going on since Ukraine joined WTO, which not only facilitates reduction of dependence of the national economy on individual geographical markets, but also predetermines the necessity to protect interests of the national producers by the Ukrainian government in new markets.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Bila I. S., Salatiuk N. M.
World experience of state regulation of entrepreneurship (p. 26 - 30)

The article analyses tendencies of state regulation of entrepreneurship in EU countries, USA and Japan and identifies state regulation of entrepreneurship as a system, which consists of certain elements, unity and interaction of which determine its efficiency and functionality. Analysis, systematisation and generalisation of experience of state regulation of entrepreneurship in these countries allow making a conclusion that the existing differences in the role of the state in economy are not connected with the degree of state regulation, but are connected with the means used for its realisation. General tendencies of development of relations between the state and entrepreneurial sector allowed identification of main elements of the system of state regulation of entrepreneurship, which include: forecasting, planning and programming socio-economic development; anti-monopoly competitive policy; tax and investment policy; innovation policy and stimulation of R&D (Research & Development). The prospect of further studies is identification of specific features of the system of state regulation of entrepreneurship in the modern Ukrainian economy.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Petrushevska V. V.
Financial policy of prevention and liquidation of consequences of global economic instability: foreign experience (p. 31 - 36)

The article considers main measures of the financial policy realised in the countries of the world, in particular, Europe, USA, China and Japan, directed at prevention and liquidation of consequences of crisis phenomena of the world economy. It considers programmes of support of economy and financial sector of different countries adopted during the period of the world financial crisis of 2007 – 2009. It marks out that an important element of successful realisation of anti-crisis measures is a correct co-ordination of the budget and tax policy and money and loan policy. It positively marks out experience of application of active arbitrary stimulating policy under crisis conditions. In view of increase of efficiency of macro-economic management an important task of the future would be improvement of anti-crisis mechanisms with consideration of their influence upon short-term dynamics and long-term growth. The conducted analysis allows making a conclusion that mistakes of the financial policy are one of the main reasons of overheating the world economy, while analysis and use of experience of the leading countries of the world would allow increase of quality of the financial policy, directed at reduction of crisis vulnerability.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Polyakova Y. O.
Principles of functioning of the transmission mechanism of the monetary system in international business (p. 37 - 42)

Modern international economic relations are characterised with reduction of rates of economic growth of the majority of developed economic systems, gradual oligopolisation of international markets, domination of private investors interests in political relations, growth of intensity and frequency of local, regional and international economic crises, which negatively influences the tendencies of formation of main directions of transmission and use of capital. Consideration of theoretical grounds of functioning of the monetary mechanism and content analysis of the international statistical information for a long period of time allow marking out certain principles of restoration of integrity of the transmission mechanism of the monetary system as basic ones. Introduction of the proposed principles into the mechanism of functioning of the international monetary system would allow increase of the rates of growth of production of the developed economic systems, strengthening of stability of functioning of the developing economies and decrease of interdependence of different participants of international economic relations, which would directly influence improvement of macro-economic indicators.

Article is written in Russian


Dekhtyar N. A.
Tendencies of development of the world market of business tourism (p. 43 - 51)

The goal of the article is detection of common tendencies of MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conferences, and Exhibitions) industry functioning and identification of directions of development of the national market of business tourism. The article considers the problems of the Ukrainian business tourism at this stage, provides a review of recommendations regarding increase of competitiveness of the national tourist product, conducts a statistical study of main macro-economic indicators of the world market of tourist services and segment of business tourism as one of its most important components, conducts analysis of dynamics of the industry development using examples of the leading countries of the world. A special attention is paid to exhibition activity – the most large scale element of the MICE industry. In the result of the study the article reveals changes in ratings of indicators of functioning of the sphere of business tourism in some countries, lists leading exporters and importers of tourist products on the basis of data of the World Travel and Tourism Council and the World Bank, and identifies position of Ukraine at separate segments of the market of business tourism, due to which it makes a recommendation to use the niche strategy. Prospects of further studies in this direction are analysis of interrelations between basic indicators of development of the world industry of business tourism with the use of economic and mathematical methods and construction of forecast models by micro-regions of the world.

Article is written in Ukrainan


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №2-2014

Kyzym M. O., Yaroshenko I. V., Matyushenko I. Y., Semigulina I. B., Makhaniova Y. M.
Opportunities and Threats of Ukraine WTO Membership to the Production and Foreign Trade of Grain Crops with the EU and Customs Union and EurAsEC (p. 7 - 24)

The article deals with the problem of the consequences for Ukraine from its membership in the WTO, for Ukraine’s production and foreign grain crops trade with the EU and the Customs Union (CU), the Eurasian Economic Community. It was determined that Ukraine is among the absolute world leaders in the production and export of grain crops and sunflower oil from domestic raw materials. The commodity structure of exports and imports of agricultural products was analyzed. The situation and changes in the market of grain crops and its products after the WTO accession were examined. The negative factors of the relevant market of cereals crops and its products were identified. It was determined that Ukraine's foreign trade with third countries which are not members of the EU and CU after joining the WTO has expanded considerably and has more promising areas for further expanding markets than with the EU and CU. It was proved that the largest importer of domestic finished grain products is Russia. It was determined that the domestic market in Ukraine is quite open to imports of cereals and their products. The situation and changes in the market of sunflower seeds and sunflower oil after Ukraine's accession to the WTO was examined. It was defined that the production of sunflower oil in Ukraine is export oriented activity. The analysis of export-import operations in Ukraine with the EU and CU led to the conclusion that these markets are closed for former Soviet Union producers. It was determined that the domestic market of Ukraine in terms of its own resource base (sunflower seeds) for the production of sunflower oil is secure enough. It was proved that for effective development of domestic markets of these goods, Ukraine needs to develop other areas of foreign trade integration.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Cherlenyak I. I., Diugowanets O. M.
International Offshore Business and the Global Financial System (p. 24 - 29)

The purpose of this article is to study the relations between the international financial system, the international offshore business trends and the development of national economies. The study analyzed the positive and negative aspects of the impact of offshore zones on international business and international financial system. The conceptual foundations of motivational sources of offshore business and content formats that denote its asocial systemic nature were considered. Analytical study of the structure, substructure, functions and range of capabilities of the substructures of the global financial system were performed, which is an important issue in terms of priorities and objectives of state and corporate economic policies.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Berenda S. V., Panova A. V.
From Overhang to Policy Space Enhancement Within WTO Negotiations (p. 30 - 35)

The article discusses issues related to the assessment of the impact on the level of bound tariff "Policy Space" within the trade negotiations in the WTO. The concept of "Policy Space" focuses on tariff component. In the article the quantitative analysis of bound tariffs was implemented in the context of countries – the founders and not the founders of the WTO; attempt to classify countries according to the level of bound tariffs; The comparative analysis of the "Policy Space" of individual countries. Stakeholder participation in the formation of "Policy Space" for Ukraine would increase their competitiveness on the foreign and domestic markets. Strong position in the context of the WTO negotiations will help Ukrainian companies to turn competitive potential into a competitive advantage. In conclusion, our hypothesis is that the founders of the WTO as a whole have a greater "Policy Space" than non-founders, was not confirmed.

Article is written in English


Kniazieva T. V.
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Economic Mechanism of Solving International Problems of Nature Management (p. 36 - 40)

On the basis of the development of ideas about scientific views of neoclassical economic theory in the direction of justifying the priority of importance of the general economic efficiency theory of nature management economics in theory it is determined that it is the principles of the theory of economic efficiency should be the basis of the mechanism of solving international problems of nature management. Improved procedure for determining the effectiveness of environmental and economic relations on the basis of nature differentiation results of environmental activities, classification of factors limiting action cost criteria in the assessment of environmental activities in order to improve the validity of activities in the fields of nature conservation and environmental protection, for the first time it is justified by means of economic-mathematical model, which allows to visualize the criteria of international eco-efficiency of economic activity and the impact of negative factors on it.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Prokopenko V. Y.
The Impact of Monetary Tools on the Real Estate Markets in Several Countries of the World (p. 41 - 49)

The paper deals with monetary tools used by monetary regulators in the Euro zone countries and the USA and also analyses scientific research in the field of monetary control of real estate markets in the Euro zone countries and the USA. The author arrives at the conclusion that liberal monetary regimes are mostly used to influence financial markets, including the real estate market. The paper examines monetary tools in dynamics and in coordination with the change of price behavior in real estate markets of the above-mentioned countries.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Seitim A. Y.
The Usage of Cryptocurrency as an Alternative Solution of Issues of the World Monetary System (p. 50 - 55)

Financial sector, as well as all other aspects of business, has not escaped the introduction of IT-technologies. Not only have these technologies accelerated all transactions, but also made them relatively cheap and instant. If earlier payments were primarily conducted only in traditional currencies by banks and other relevant entities, recently the Bitcoin and other similar cryptocurrencies took its place as a universal currency. This article is devoted to the topical matter of cryptocurrencies, their functions and mechanisms of emission. This topic is particularly relevant today, as the traditional common currency like the U.S. dollar, yen, etc., are not so stable as before. Especially a lot of claims are presented to the U.S. dollar. Among the main complaints – the uncontrolled by the rest of the financial market emission of the U.S. currency. The cryptocurrency Bitcoin is devoid of this shortcoming. Being unrecognized as money, the cryptocurrency Bitcoin already has its own stock exchange, fund a large community of developers, users and carriers. Separate groups of states, such as the BRICS, the Bolivarian Alliance and other communities have long been working on the creation of their own currencies. The trend of reorganization of the world monetary system is becoming more and more distinct.

Article is written in Russian


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №3-2014

Azmuk N. A.
Transformation of Employment in the Advanced Information Economy Countries (p. 7 - 12)

The aim of the article is to determine trends in the transformation of employment in advanced information economy countries. The paper analyzes the current state and dynamics of the labor market of countries with the development of information and computer technologies. Based on the analysis the trends in the transformation of employment in advanced information economy were revealed. It was shown that information and computer technology do not affect the level of employment, while significantly raise the level of productivity. In countries with developed information and computer technologies already existing forms of precarious employment are widely used, which are adapted to the modern requirements of the labor market. Electronic forms of employment appear and are widely used, in particular, electronic freelancing. The workforce that performs frequently repeated mediation computer technologies are replaced. Relevant changes in the content and the nature of work in the information economy were found. The innovative forms of human capital were characterized. The features of virtual labor migration were defined. A definition of virtual labor migration was suggested.

Article is written in Russian


Vasyltsiv T. H., Iliash N. I.
Evaluation of Efficiency of Implementation of Functions of the State Regulation of Investment and Innovation Supporting to Ensure the Economic Security of the Real Sector of Economy of Ukraine (p. 13 - 18)

The article is aimed at the analysis of efficiency of implementation of functions of the State regulation of investment and innovation to ensure the economic security of the real sector of economy of Ukraine and uncovering of its weaknesses. The article analyses the efficiency, advantages and disadvantages of realization from the state authorities of such functions as analysis, planning, organization, motivation, and control in the system of activity for enhancement of investment and innovation supporting to enhance the economic security of the real sector of the national economy. Using the grouping method, logical analysis and expert interviews the main shortcomings which require correction were identified. It was revealed that the principal defects in the functions of information, monitoring, analyzing and detecting are the absence of the holistic periodic monitoring system for analysis and diagnosis of investment-innovative supporting to ensure the economic security of the real sector, its inconsistency, lack of focusing on the early identification of negative trends, risks and threats, changes in the quality of the business environment and the insufficient providing of information. As to the planning function, such weaknesses were identified as lack of concrete measures and means to achieve the policy objectives in the strategic and tactical governmental planning documents, incoordination and absence of linkage with the development of related economic activities. It was proven, that the regulatory shortcomings regarding the functions of the organization are failure of the initiating function of creation and development of new institutional infrastructure, of cooperation locations, of forming of the investment resources, of starting the new practices and of the creation of subjects of implementing of the investment and innovation activity. It was determined that the disadvantages of implementing of the motivation function are failure to provide motives for the authorities on all levels of the active improvement policy, as well as deficit of subjects of infrastructure and directly of enterprises to increase the amount of the investment and innovation supporting in the basic branches. It was proven, that the deficiency as to the control function is the non-use of monitoring practice in order to control the efficiency of the state policy to improve the efficiency of investment and innovation supporting to ensure the economic security of the market participants.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Korneyev M. V.
Theoretical and Methodological Framework for the Assessment of the Level of Financialization of the Economy (p. 19 - 24)

The article deals with some aspects of interpretation and evaluation of financialization of the economy. Systematic approach to the evaluation of financialization of the economy in different economic conditions was provided. The indexes to evaluate the financialization of the economy in the context of its impact on investment decisions were given. Approaches to the assessment of financialization of the economy in terms of the impact on income inequality were grouped. A list of indicators to measure the level of financialization of the economy of developed countries that have experienced the negative effects of excessive growth of the financial sector was made. The system of indicators to measure the level of financialization of the economy was suggested, which built an integrated indicator of the level of such financialization. The integral indicator of financialization of the economy in a group of selected countries was calculated. A differentiation of a group of selected countries in terms of financialization of the economy (low, adequate, medium, high) was implemented.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Polishchuk Y. A.
Characteristic Features of the Development of the World Financial Market at the Current Stage (p. 25 - 31)

The objective of the article is analysis of the development of the world financial market and determination of its trends and lines of development of nonbank financial institutions. Basic developmental trends of the world financial market are singled out and analyzed on the basis of reports of the US Economic Security Council, the European Central Bank, the International Organization of Securities Commissions. The role of nonbank financial institutions in the world financial market is determined. The effect of economic reforms in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe is studied with a view to applying their experience in Ukraine. Thus, primary developmental trends of the world financial market are: increasing volume of trade in financial services; increasing share of financial services in the international service turnover; increasing employment in the financial services sector; establishment of a single mega-regulator of the financial market; integration of information technology and financial services; high merger and acquisition activity in the nonbank financial institutions sector; expansion and utilization of outsourcing on the world financial market; inception of the disintermediation and deglobalization processes. Further study prospects in this field consist in the establishment of tendencies in the development of the financial market, in particular, nonbank financial institutions of Ukraine and their conformity with the world financial market.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Prushkivskyj V. G., Prushkivs'ka O. V.
The Effect of Globalization on Formation of the Consumer Market in Transitional Economies (p. 32 - 37)

The article studies the effect of globalization on formation of the consumer market in transitional economies in the pre-crisis and post-crisis periods. Positive and negative aspects of influence of globalization on economies of countries with varying development levels are singled out. Post-Soviet countries are established to be implementing market reforms and integrating into the international division of labor, with globalization processes intensifying structural disproportions in the national economy. Factors of influence of globalization on the consumer market are singled out and combined into two groups: internal (consumer needs, resources, consumer incomes, the state economic policy) and external (the economic structure formed in the previous economic system, transformational processes (formation of the market economy), new integration processes, intensification of the effect of globalization processes). It is proven that within the context of intensification of globalization processes, the state economic policy should be formed in pursuit of transition from the export-oriented development strategy where raw material production dominates to internally-oriented development strategy with saturation of the domestic consumer market. A general conclusion is drawn that globalization as an objective process directly influences the development of the national economy in general and the domestic consumer market in particular. However, this process requires that governments pursue a reasonable economic policy to the advantage of the state.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Chechetovа-Terashvili T. M., Malyshko Y. M.
Analysis of Disadvantages of the International Rating “Doing Business” Methodology (p. 38 - 44)

The article demonstrates analysis of the methodology of the international rating “Doing Business” which characterizes entrepreneurship control norms, evaluates the terms of registration, business operations and liquidation of small and medium-size business entities. The essence of rating indicators is determined, and some indices are proposed for implementation in the system which reflect the favorableness of the business environment. Basic rating requirements for business entities participating in the study are considered. Principal disadvantages of the “Doing Business” rating are substantiated which interfere with international comparative analysis of the external business environment of enterprises and result in making incorrect managerial decisions by both business entities concerning the choice of the country where operations will be carried out, and states concerning correction of the strategy of regulating operations of business entities.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Yaroshenko I. V.
Analysis of the Socioeconomic Development of Problematic Regions of the European Union Countries (p. 45 - 53)

The work is an analysis of problems of the socioeconomic development of regions of EU countries, in particular Poland, which is a prerequisite to effective management and prevention of crises in various activities of a region. The conducted analysis demonstrates that regions of EU countries (NUTS 1 level – state level) are quite different in terms of administrative-territorial organization. In addition, EU countries are quite varied in terms of both population and territory size and primary socioeconomic development indices (GDP per capita, unemployment rates, R&D spending). Still greater variances in the socioeconomic development of regions in EU countries are observed while analyzing NUTS 2 and 3 level indices, which is a consequence of significant differences in the administrative-territorial organization of the countries and their socioeconomic development driven by spiritual and moral, historical, cultural, ethnic, social, economic, and other factors. Using regions of Poland as an example, significant variance and irregularity of socioeconomic development are revealed both within the country and in comparison with average European Union indices. Significant gaps in the territory development levels are capable of causing political disunity and instability, as well as economic disintegration and crisis. This problem is especially significant for the countries of Eastern and Central Europe which used to be a part of the socialist space, in particular, for Ukraine.

Article is written in Ukrainan


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №4-2014

Dorovsky O. V.
Evaluation of Micro-Environment of the Pharmaceutical Industry in Ukraine (p. 8 - 21)

The article is aimed at evaluation and analysis of micro-environment factors of the pharmaceutical industry in Ukraine. In order to achieve the desired goal, in the article a structural-logic model of micro-environment of the pharmaceutical industry in Ukraine is built. It has been proven that the pharmaceutical industry of Ukraine can be reasonably analyzed in the following directions: influence factors, supply channels, distribution channels, and competition. Micro-environment of the pharmaceutical industry in Ukraine was analyzed in the selected directions. Its evaluation was carried out by means of the OT-analysis. A cognitive map of the causation of opportunities and threats to the micro-environment of the pharmaceutical industry in Ukraine was built. On the basis of the study has been proven, that the following factors represent the biggest threats to the pharmaceutical industry in Ukraine: large volumes of imported pharmaceutical products (PhP) in value terms on the domestic market, higher-than-anticipated growth of cost of conventional PhP-packing, population decline and the low volumes of hospital procurements of PhP.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Kolbasin E. S., Ostapenko A. V., Yaroshenko I. V.
Analysis of the World Bus Manufacturing Market (p. 28 - 39)

The article focuses on the issue of development of the world bus manufacturing market. Evidence was provided that the development rates of the bus manufacturing industry vary throughout the world. The dynamics of the world bus manufacturing industry in the world’s leading countries and companies manufacturing automobiles was analyzed in terms of decennial trends of the recent years. The ratings of the world’s leading countries were determined based on the bus production output volumes in the segment of “large-sized buses”. A conclusion was drawn concerning significant fluctuations in the bus manufacturing performance during the global financial crisis. The article also proposes an analytical study of the latest trends in the development of bus manufacturing in the EU and CIS countries. The study established that two-thirds of the world bus manufacturing market volume is concentrated in three countries. The volumes of commercial bus sales in the leading manufacturing countries of the world and in Ukraine were studied. The bus manufacturing profile among the models produced by companies based in the Russian Federation was analyzed. The study established that the national manufacturers lag considerably behind the world leaders in the bus manufacturing industry.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Matyushenko I. Y.
Prospects for the Development of the Fusion Energy Industry in the Developed Countries of the World and in Ukraine (p. 40 - 46)

The article discusses the primary directions and issues in the development of the fusion energy industry in the world and in Ukraine. Nuclear power-engineering based on uranium and plutonium fission was established to be the most significant alternative to hydrocarbons as of today, yet it is inevitably linked to two more global problems, namely disposal of highly active and spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive waste, as well as nuclear safety. The study shows that the fusion energy industry based on using the energy released during fusion of light nuclei has significant advantages – nuclear fusion can not only satisfy the current energy demands of mankind (16 TW), but also produce a much larger amount of energy; quite a small amount of common substances is required to fuel the process; the inherent safety of the fusion energy industry is at a high level; there is no long-lived high-level radioactive waste; yet there are disadvantages as well – technological complexity of running a self-sustained thermonuclear reaction; there are currently no effective technologies capable of converting the energy released during the thermonuclear fusion into electricity. The study also determined that today, the problem of forming the fusion energy industry is of the technical and economic rather than physical nature, as creation of economically sound power stations requires solving two principal tasks: continuation of the development of new materials capable of enduring severe service conditions; creation of new technologies in the sphere of remote control, containment design, fuel cycles, etc. The study proves that a possible way out of the energy impasse can be offered by “the cold fusion”, that is the process of running completely safe low-energy nuclear reactions, for instance, on the basis of the nickel nanopowder and hydrogen, carried out in the E-Cat heat generator. The article also includes areas of focus outlined in the Targeted Research and Development Program of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine “Prospective Research in Plasma Physics, Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion and Plasma Technologies” for 2014-2016.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Melnyk A. G.
High Technology Financing Systems (p. 47 - 52)

The article focuses on the properties of the innovative processes at industrial enterprises of the high technology sector viewed from the perspective of structural transformations in the system of innovative directions which concern upgrading the technological basis of the production operations, acquisition of new technologies, and R&D. Characteristic features of such transformations within the system of high-technology production were singled out. Construction principles of financing systems for development and implementation of high technology in industrial production were formulated. A methodological approach to construction of a high technology development financing system was proposed, which implies elimination of the negative implications arising during transition of an industrial enterprise to high-technology production, as well as development of new technologies.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Musina L. A., Kvasha T. K.
A Study of the Effect of Resource Efficiency on the Economic Development in the Countries that Are Leaders of “Green” Modernization (p. 53 - 61)

The United Nations Organization has pointed out the key role of industrialization and a new industrial policy for ensuring structural reorganization and potential economic growth. Measures and incentives for efficient use of natural resources, as it was proven, tend to produce a positive effect on the economic parameters in numerous countries and are given substantial attention in their reform packages. This must be a top priority for Ukraine, considering its severe resource constraints and a challenging situation in the Eastern regions The objective of the work consists in studying the factors promoting growth in the GDP resource efficiency and their connection with the policy of greening the economies used in the EU countries,as well as proposing solutions for Ukraine. Such factors were analyzed for Great Britain and the Netherlands, certain steps were proposed for Ukraine, in particular, development of a State Policy Framework and plan of action aimed at a “green” economy, incentives for efficient use of resources, including fairer prices for natural resources, varied waste disposal fees, changes in the tax policy and state procurement favoring resource efficiency and eco-innovation.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Omarov S. A.
Research and Practical Aspects of Implementation of the Sustainable Development Concept: Domestic and Foreign Experience (p. 61 - 67)

The article deals with the analysis of research and practical basis for implementation of the sustainable development concept in the system of governmental management of the country development at the national and regional levels. Relevance of the article is determined by the necessity of finding solutions to global and national issues within the context of transition to a balanced economic, social, and ecological development. The objective of the article consists in generalizing domestic and foreign experience of introducing the sustainable development concept into laws and regulations of the country and its regions. The experience of leading countries of the world and Ukraine in forming the elements of the mechanism of governmental support of sustainable development, namely legislative, organizational, and public and social ones was analyzed, and their strengths and weaknesses were singled out. It was proven that most countries of the world are developing a set of measures aimed at implementation and promotion of sustainable development which includes legislative acts, national sustainable development strategies, sustainable development programs or projects, and its monitoring indicators. Directions for future improvement of legislation and sustainable development regulation practices in Ukraine and other countries of the world were determined.

Article is written in Ukrainan


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №1-2015

Antonenko S. V., Yaldin I. V., Kochetygova T. V.
State Support of the Metallurgical Industry in Developed and Developing Countries (p. 7 - 15)

The aim of the article is to analyze the experience of developed and developing countries in terms of support of the metallurgical industry with a view to assessment of the possibility of applying it for improvement of the state regulation of the development of the Ukrainian metallurgical industry. The undertaken study allowed singling out primary scenarios for economic stimulation of the development of the metallurgical industry in different world countries. It was established that implementation of corresponding scenarios can be achieved by employing different means and tools. The authors also found that development and implementation of individual state regulation means are carried out in accordance with the objective and principles set out in the policy documents of the national and supranational levels. The authors considered the key strategic reference points for the development of the metallurgical industry in the countries with the world’s greatest volumes of steel production. The study allowed determining stimulation of the internal demand for the metallurgical products as the most reasonable for application in the domestic practice of state support of the metallurgical industry.

Article is written in Ukrainan


GrischenkoTetyana V., Anzina H. V.
The Effect of Financialization of the Economy on Functioning of the Frontier Capital Markets (p. 16 - 21)

The article deals with the questions of financialization as a global trend in the development of the world economy which is characterized be the dominance of the financial sector in the processes of market pricing. Considering the fact that the financial system is a key element in any economy, financialization has its effect on the economy of each country. Such characteristics of the development of the Ukrainian economy as low liquidity and capitalization of the financial market, a high systemic risk level, a relative closedness of the market for foreign investors result in classification of the Ukrainian market as a frontier one (in accordance with the MSCI index proposed by the rating agency Standard&Poor’s). The study singles out the specific features of the effect produced by financialization on the economy of Ukraine and, consequently, economic agents within the country. The authors proved that the process of financialization of the world economy has a certain positive influence on countries with frontier capital markets in terms of emergence of new opportunities for their participation in the international capital market, utilization of modern financing tools, enrichment of the global experience of corporate management, etc.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Dalevska N. M.
Institutionalization of Interests of Actors in International Relations Based on Strategic Partnership Principles (p. 22 - 26)

The article aims to study theoretical and methodological issues of institutionalization of interests of actors in international relations based on strategic partnership principles, to identify characteristic aspects of formation of a system of regulatory, structural, and constitutive regulators that have their effect on formation of goals and interests of actors in international relations, to discuss the characteristics of formation of the current global order. The article analyzes the interaction of the interests of actors in international relations within the world politico-economic space. Application of the institutional analysis method allowed studying the directions for the functional transformation of the international strategy of economic development of the world economic management system. The author substantiated the necessity of identification of interests of actors in international relations in accordance with the international conduct norms. The article also offers an interpretation for the term “institutionalization of interests of actors in international relations”. Also, the author developed initial positions of interests of actors in international relations in accordance with the strategic partnership principles. The study concludes that that foundation of the institutional environment of the world economy is formed by a system of regulatory, structural, and constitutive regulators having their effect on the formation of goals and interests of actors in international relations and corresponding mechanisms, whose determination results from selection of the strategic partnership terms within the world politico-economic space.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Makhaniova Y. M.
Export of Grain Crops of Ukraine, the EU, and Countries of the World in the Context of Modern Integration Processes (p. 27 - 36)

The article deals with the relevant question of studying the interconnection of export of agricultural products of Ukraine, the EU, and countries of the world using the example of grain crops, as well as the question of evaluating the efficiency of Ukraine’s export of grain crops to the European and world markets within the context of creation of the zone of free trade with the EU. The study proves that Ukraine plays a significant role in the world grain crops market: its share in wheat export makes on average 5%; 18% in barley export; 9% in the world export of corn; simultaneously, Ukraine’s share in the volume of wheat exported to the EU makes 32%, 45% in barley export; 48% in corn export. The work studied Ukraine’s correlation relationships with the EU and countries of the world with respect to wheat, barley, and corn by crop acreage, export and import rates, which yielded high crop acreage and export values, whereas the efficiency of wheat and corn cultivation in Ukraine is somewhat lower than in the EU. The regression analysis held in this study allowed establishing the existence of a positive trend in wheat cultivation – the export level is higher that the import level, yet wheat cultivation efficiency per hectare of land is lower than the world level; the efficiency of barley cultivation per hectare of land is lower than the world level, yet positive trends are observed for the export; corn cultivation efficiency per hectare of land is sufficiently high, which suggests that this crop is quite promising in terms of realization of the export potential. It was established that the efficiency of the Ukrainian grain crops export in comparison with the EU makes on average 47% for wheat, 22% for barley, 52% for corn, that is, the EU market is the most promising for the Ukrainian grains market, but its intensification and growth prospects require that Ukraine implement certain means and mechanisms.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Tkalenko S. I., Liubachivska R. Z.
Characteristic Aspects of Formation of EU Biotechnology Clusters: Experience for Ukraine (p. 37 - 42)

The article aims to study the development of innovation clusters in the EU biotechnology sector. The study demonstrates an increase in the role of innovation clusters and characteristic aspects of formation of a new mentality of their participants with a high degree of trust in partners on the basis of new technology and knowledge. Biotechnology industry in Europe is second after the world leader – the United States having the biggest biotechnology sector of medicine and biotechnology. The authors analyzed and identified the role of leaders in formation of the cluster policy and singled out success factors for the biotechnology sector, namely: Germany, Great Britain, and France. The prospects for further research in this area consist in formation of innovation models of cluster development in Ukraine and determination of strengths in EU countries. The article describes possibilities of formation of innovation clusters in Ukraine and the development of an information sphere and legal environment to support implementation of the cluster policy.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Prokopenko V. Y., Sviatokum I. O.
Characteristic Features and Types of Use of Mortgage-Backed Bonds in European States (p. 280 - 284)

The article deals with mortgage instruments used in European economies. Scientific research focusing on the European mortgage market was analyzed. The article also considers the substance and distinctive features of mortgage-backed bonds – a mortgage-backed security type characteristic of the European market. The article discusses characteristic features of covered bonds, analyzes the basic emission models for such securities, their strengths and weaknesses. The work describes approaches to construction of models of mortgage-backed security emission and singles out a series of essential risks linked to operations of issuers of mortgage-backed securities.

Article is written in Russian


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №2-2015

Azmuk N. A.
Precarious Work as a Way for the Population Survival in Under-Developed Countries (p. 6 - 10)

The article describes the type of reproduction of labor resources in the least developed countries and analyzes the dynamics of changes in the structure of employment by economic sectors. The comparative analysis of the structure of employment between the developed and the least developed countries has been carried out. It has been determined that the use of labor resources in underdeveloped countries happens through unstable forms of precarious employment: informal and over employment. And in the countries with developed economies precarious work is realized in the form of agency and digital employment. The advantages and risks of using precarious employment in different types of economies have been determined. The main advantages of precarious work in developed economies are freedom of choice and opportunities for self-realization, providing a higher level of responsibility for the results of their work efforts. Unstable precarious work in underdeveloped countries is an opportunity of the physical survival for the worker and his family.

Article is written in Russian


Hotra V. V.
Innovative Marketing as a Tool for Management of Innovation Development of Agro-Industrial Complex (p. 11 - 17)

The aim of the article is allocation on the basis of theoretical and methodological analysis of innovative marketing tools, which may be affected by the state and directly by the counterparties-participants of the market. Access to agricultural markets and marketing information, especially for small farms, is an important prerequisite for innovation development of the regional agro-industrial complex (AIC) in developing countries and countries with transitive economy. As a result of the research it has been determined that the state and especially the regional authorities can contribute to this process, ensuring the effective functioning of the marketing information system and regional food markets; reduction in the supply chain as well as legislative and regulatory support for the processes of horizontal and vertical integration of participants in agricultural markets. It has been proved that the reduction of chains for promoting products from producer to consumer can be an incentive to the increase in competitiveness of small businesses, in particular, more labor-intensive farms. The use of innovative marketing tools in the product and assortment policy of farms, establishment of solidarity agriculture organizations contribute to this as well. The directions for further research on innovative marketing in the agricultural sector may be evaluation of the AMIS functioning in Ukraine, as well as development of recommendations for the introduction of innovative marketing tools in the activities of local farms and preliminary assessment of their effectiveness.

Article is written in Ukrainan


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №3-2015

Grygorova-Berenda L. I.
International Experience of Applying Hedonic Indexes in Economy and the Possibility of its Using in Ukraine (p. 7 - 13)

The article is devoted to generalization of the international experience of applying hedonic indexes in economy and the possibilities of using this approach in the study of the effectiveness of local self-government under conditions of policy of decentralizing public administration in Ukraine. The article considers both the strengths and weaknesses of the hedonic approach to assessing the quality of goods and services, analyzes the American experience of alternative inflation calculation excluding hedonic indexes. However, there are serious weaknesses, connected with the lack of quality and reliable statistics, and the complexity of making calculations and their “distribution” among the interested consumers and obtaining primary statistics. The author makes a conclusion about the methodological possibility of using the integral index of life quality at the regional level on the basis of hedonic indexes.

Article is written in Russian


Ilnytskyy D. O.
National Models of University Patenting: Conclusions from the World Experience (p. 14 - 23)

The aim of the article is working out arguments concerning the ways of improving the policies of national scientific and educational space development based on identification and analysis of the main national model of university patenting. In the paper there was made a conclusion that under conditions of existence of the university patenting basic models (institutional, inventor and hybrid ones) for the past 20 years the dynamic changes have been taking place in the countries. Statistical data and those ones in the patent databases not always provide for adequate assessing the activities of universities as of institutions of the knowledge economy, which made it possible to talk about the existence of “Swedish” and “European” paradoxes. Britain and China are the most advanced countries in terms of the development of institutional models on the US example. In Ukraine there has been formed a unique for the European continent institutional model with a high role of individual inventors, which is characterized by negative manifestations. It has been proved that the countries should maintain the dialogue on sectoral priorities of openness of the university research results.

Article is written in Russian


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №4-2015

Aleksieieva N. I., Kotina H. M., Stepura M. M.
Peculiarities of Calculating the Cost of Public Goods (from the Necessary to the Desired): Domestic Realities and European Experience (p. 7 - 19)

Social needs and instruments for their satisfaction — public goods — have been studied. Attention is drawn to the fact that social needs are composed of individual and collective needs of economic entities. They are interrelated and complementary. An important difference between individual and collective needs is in their personification (individualization) and divisibility. Proper consideration has been paid to concepts related to the needs of society — the public interest (as a form of social needs), public goods (all the goods, services that can satisfy social needs). For studying social needs and benefits in this work there was taken one of the most popular of their classification, which lies in their division into primary and secondary ones. Emphasis is placed on importance of its use in determining the priority of financing public goods. The focus is on the approach to calculating the cost of public goods. It is regarded as one of the stages in satisfying social needs (along with planning and analysis of the degree for their satisfaction). An approach to determining the structure of financing the total volume of public goods, calculating minimum admissible and desired volume of financing has been presented. The current interest in the European experience prompted the authors to analyze the cost and structure of financing public goods in France, the available statistical base allowing it to be implemented. The determined dependence between the indicators enabled conducting calculations of the desired volumes of financing the public needs per person according to three scenarios: optimistic, satisfactory and critical relevant to phases of the economic cycle. This simulation is aimed at being used in management decision-making, development of social and economic policy, etc. There have been noted serious shortcomings related to the lack of quality and reliable statistical information on Ukraine, which hamper the calculation and consideration of foreign experience.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Glukhova D. A.
Strategies for Allocation of the US Federal Budget: Military and Innovative Dimension (p. 20 - 24)

The aim of the article is to define the conceptual framework and features of priority directions in redistribution of the US federal funds. This subject is very relevant because it discloses a system of financing and allocations of the most powerful state in the world in many aspects. The article describes the structure of government funding of the national military sector and directions of the modernization of the US military-industrial complex. It has been determined that in the global expansion of military actions the USA in no case remain aloof from the given events. Manufacturing the US military products plays a key role in the defense industry not only of the country itself but also the international community as a whole. For Ukraine, with the complications in its military-political situation, the cooperation with the United States and inclusion of the financial assistance to our country in its federal budget are very important. The mentioned directions for allocating the received funds in the amount of $ 300 mln by the Ukrainian government confirm the support by the American state of our military equipment and modernization of the national defense industry.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Zagorodnia A. A.
The Content of Professional Training of Specialists for the Economic Sector in the Republic of Poland (p. 25 - 29)

The article analyzes the content of professional training of specialists for economic sector in the Republic of Poland. The author emphasizes that economic education is a special kind of education, content and procedural components of which have a significant impact on the formation of both professional and personal criteria of personal and professional development of competent specialists, who will influence the development and course of the various economic processes that will be able to determine the improvement of society as a whole and each individual in particular. The author also notes that the economic education is developing in students a clear understanding of scientific laws of economic development, especially concerning market relations; purposeful, systematic forming in the future experts economic knowledge, high level of organization and creative initiatives of their preparation for highly professional work, skillfully careful attitude to nature; developing the habit of practical use of economic knowledge in real life. The content of professional training of specialists for economic sector in Poland is determined by the educational standards for the field of research, in particular — the economy.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Fehr H., Tofaniuk O. V.
The Financial Equalization System in Germany and Ukraine (p. 30 - 38)

Based on the experience of European countries, practical recommendations on improving the level of financial capacity of regions in Ukraine have been developed. In the article the comparative analysis of the financial equalization system in Germany and Ukraine has been conducted, different approaches to equalization on the basis of the actual redistribution have been determined, the efficiency and transparency of the use of budgetary resources in these countries have been analyzed. The research result is the substantiation of the necessity for decentralization of tax revenues in Ukraine to reduce the volume of transfers from the State Budget to the regions. Prospects for further research in this direction are developing a reform strategy for Germany and Ukraine in order to improve the socio-economic relations between the center and regions and to make the redistribution of budgetary resources more efficient. Improving the system of financial equalization involves the use of optimization techniques taking into account the inter-regional economic and geographic ties.

Article is written in English


Krupka M. I., Revak I. O.
World Experience in Using Education and Science in the Process of Building the State Intellectual Potential (p. 39 - 45)

The aim of the article is to analyze the world experience in using education and science in the processes of increasing the intellectual potential of the state and prospects of its application in Ukraine. The article describes features of the continental, Atlantic and the East Asian models of higher education management with emphasis on the key points, which can be useful for reforming the Ukrainian system of education. It has been noted that the problem of higher education quality in Ukraine lies in fundamental principles of its functioning, because development of the national education system for a long time took place under conditions of administrative system, while the European system of education is built on principles of competition and free market. On the basis of comparative characteristics of sources of finance in the United States there has been determined a dominant role of the federal government and it has been found that among the branches of science the leading positions are occupied by the life sciences. The experience of reforming science in countries of the Central and Eastern Europe, which took place on the model of functioning of the research institutes and research process in the EU countries, has been analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the successful experience of reforming the education and science in China. Taking into account the international experience the author has substantiated the directions of increasing the intellectual potential in Ukraine by deepening the integration of education and science, in particular: the creation of a wide network of research universities and conducting of a fair share of fundamental research on their base; accelerated development of public-private partnership in education and science; quick updating of the curricula adequate to the requirements of time and introduction of interdisciplinary courses; competitive financing of scientific programs with participation of the state and international financial institutions; increasing of financial autonomy of universities by attracting private financial resources through business structures, establishment of charitable investment funds; intensification of cooperation of higher educational institutions with business structures, which will contribute to further development of the institutional environment and national economy as a whole.

Article is written in English


Polikarpova O. S.
Financial Imbalances and Macro-prudential Policies in the Monetary Union (p. 46 - 52)

The credit crisis and its transformation into a sovereign debt crisis have illustrated the limited character of the traditional macro financial politics. The financial crisis has shown that the priority of price stability does not guarantee macroeconomic stability. Revision of the goals and objectives of the monetary and credit policy is being carried out in many countries. In order to ensure macroeconomic stability, central banks have to use new instruments considering financial stability as an additional object. Since 2009 the IMF recommends central banks to use macro-prudential instruments for reducing macro-financial risks and imbalances in the financial system structure. The effectiveness of macro-prudential policy depends on its calibration with the monetary and credit policy. The growth of financial imbalances in the first decade after the adoption of the euro, presence of contradictory fiscal policies, deployment of a spiral of rapid crediting and price inflation have led to apraxia in the monetary and credit policy, and fiscal policy was limited by institutional arrangements. Accumulating funds during the budget surplus the countries-members of the European Monetary System (EMS) attempted to reduce asymmetric shocks. The priority of price stability in the EMS had been achieved but the economies of these countries suffered from financial imbalances. Macro-prudential policy is aimed at prevention and mitigation of systemic risk, plays a significant role in reforming the new policy of central banks. That is why European countries are developing new methods and an institutional framework for the implementation of a new macro-prudential policy. Problems of structural arbitration and the possibility of emergence of new financial imbalances in the EMS are becoming increasingly real. The flow of financial capitals and financial institutions to more lenient jurisdictions is connected with the establishment of macro-prudential policy. The macro-prudential policy of central banks has been considered, financial imbalances of the EMS since 1999 have been analyzed, the main macro-prudential instruments have been described and EMS countries that had implemented these instruments have been considered. The efficiency of using the main macro-prudential instruments in the extrapolation at mitigating symptoms of systemic risk has been analyzed. The directions of the interaction between macro-prudential and monetary and credit policy in the EMU have been identified. The problem of macro-prudential migration, which may cause a new threat of financial asymmetry in the EMU has been considered.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Skrypnyk A. V., Oborska I. S.
Evaluation of Higher Education Effectiveness (p. 53 - 61)

The aim of the article is to build a model for evaluating the higher education effectiveness depending on the operating characteristics of the educational process and current macroeconomic indicators. The reasons of the poor state of the modern Ukrainian higher education have been highlighted. As the main reasons of the poor quality of the proposed curricula there considered poor quality of teaching staff of higher education establishments and graduates’ striving to gain political rather than human capital. There have been proposed quantitative methods for evaluating the effectiveness of expenditures on higher education based on the data on the level of payment for skilled and unskilled labor, cost of higher education and performance of financial services markets in the country (loan interest rate and the discount rate). It is shown that the recognized leaders of the education market have the best positions in terms of cost-effectiveness. There has been carried out a comparative analysis of budget expenditures on higher education in Ukraine and other countries, which allowed to make a conclusion about the impossibility of growth of budget expenditures in the nearest future and possible significant reduction in the number of higher education institutions as a result of increasing the competition from Eastern European countries with the reformed education system.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Tymoshenko O. V.
Methodological Bases for Ranking the European Union Countries in Terms of Macroeconomic Security (p. 62 - 72)

The fundamental contradictions of existing methodical approaches to assessing the level of the state economic security have been substantiated and proposals on the introduction of a unified methodology for its assessment, which would be acceptable for use at the international level or for a specific cluster of countries, have been developed. Based on the conducted researches it has been found that the there are no unified signs for such classification of countries. To determine the most significant coefficients and critical values of the indicators of economic security, it is appropriate that the countries should be grouped in terms of the level of the economic development proposed by the UN Commission and the IMF. Analysis of the economic security level has been conducted for the countries-members of the European Union as a separate cluster of countries on the example of macroeconomic security indicators. Based on the evaluation it has been found that the proposed list of indicators and their critical values is economically sound and built on the principle of adequacy, representativeness and comprehensiveness. In 2004 the most secure countries of the EU corresponding to the macroeconomic security standards were Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, and as in 2014 the percentage of absolutely secure countries decreased from 14.3 to 7.1%, only Denmark and Sweden remained in the ranking. During the analyzed period Bulgaria and Croatia got into the risk zone, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania were in a danger zone. In 2014 Ukraine in terms of its macroeconomic security was in a critical state, which testified about serious structural and system imbalances in its development.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Tymoshchuk O. M., Horoshko K. O.
The European Experience of Ensuring the Development of River Shipping Companies (p. 73 - 78)

The aim of the article is to study the features of the inland waterway transport development in the European countries to define the main ways of development of the shipping European Union countries and the use of their experience for inland navigation in Ukraine. The paper analyzes the volume of cargo turn-over, length of inland waterways in the European countries, nomenclature of the main goods of this transportation means in Europe. There have been identified the main shipping corridors: Rhine – the main corridor linking the port cluster of Northern Europe with Hinterland; North – South, which consists of the channels in the Netherlands, Belgium and France; eastern corridor, which inland waterways cover the territory of Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic; south-eastern corridor, which includes the Danube, the Main and the channels Main – Danube, Danube – Black Sea. The main elements of the program for developing the inland waterway transport in Europe «NAIADES» – Navigation and Inland Waterway Action and Development in Europe – have been analyzed.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Khaustova V. Y.
The Global Trends of the Industrial Development in Developed and Developing Countries (p. 79 - 91)

The article analyzes the global trends in the industrial development both in developed and developing countries. The study is based on the data of interbranch balances for 38 countries over the period of 1996-2011. In the selected groups of countries there have been studied: the dynamics and structure of the world industrial output, share of industry, dynamics and structure of the volume of industrial exports, dynamics of export orientation of the industrial production, dynamics of capacity of the domestic market for industrial products, structure of consumption of industrial products, dynamics and structure of the GDP of high-tech industries, dynamics of the share of the GDP of high-tech industries in the world industry GDP. There have been formed the rankings of top 20 producers, exporters and importers of industrial products in the world, leading countries in terms of capacity of the domestic market for industrial products, leading countries in terms of import dependence of the domestic market for industrial products in the world, leading countries in terms of the GDP volume of high-tech industries. Based on the conducted analysis it has been proved that the development of industry in developing countries is taking place in higher, as compared with developed ones, pace. High rates of industrial development in developing countries are ensured, first of all, by increasing their domestic market capacity. At the same time maintaining a high level of activity in the international market for industrial products still allows developed countries to keep the leading positions in rankings. The most industrially developed countries among the developing ones are Korea, China and India, and those among the developed countries are Germany, Japan and the United States. A significant advantage of the developed countries is observed in the production of high-tech products. Even considering the advantage in the GDP growth of high-tech industries in the developing countries, their share in the world total output is still significantly smaller.

Article is written in Ukrainan


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №1-2016

Nwosu J. E.
Oil Exploration and the Dilemma of Unemployment in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria (p. 6 - 13)

The Niger delta region situated in the southern part of Nigeria covers a territory of about 112,110 km2, which represents about 12% of the total area of the country. The Niger delta is an oil-rich region, which has led Nigeria to the 12th place among the oil producing countries of the world. The share of crude oil production accounts for 90% of export revenues and 75% of the total state revenue. However, despite the numerous social and economic achievements of the oil industry, it is considered to be the cause of the unemployment rate growth in the region. Taking into account the abovementioned, the aim of this article is to evaluate the relationship of the crude oil production and high unemployment rate in the Niger Delta. In the article there applied the method of non-experimental research to enable the proportional reflection, method of cluster random choice for distribution of questionnaires and interviewing method for obtaining direct data and information. The results showed that the ecological damage caused by the oil production has had a negative impact on the fishing and agriculture — the main activities of the region rural population. In other words, the threat of oil spills, gas flaring, pollution and other activities associated with oil production are destroying the environment, which is the main home and source of income for a large number of working-age population. Thus, as a result of the depletion of fertile soils, the crop yield drops or completely disappears, forests vanish together with their resources. Rivers and reservoirs are being polluted resulting in the extinction of fish and river fauna, which, in turn, leads to the fact that fishermen and farmers, whose work is directly dependent on environmental conditions, are affected by unemployment. This causes a widespread poverty, unrest and hostile attitude of among young people, as well as the emergence of other social problems prevailing in the region. Unfortunately, the years of neglecting the problem of multinational oil companies, on the one hand, and the lack of a clear state policy of the national government regarding the problem settlement, on the other hand, only increasingly aggravate the problem.

Article is written in English


Kosyrieva O. V.
Analyzing the Differentiation of Socio-Economic Development of Regions in EU Member States (p. 14 - 23)

The article investigates problems of differentiation of regional socio-economic development in EU Member States. As the countries studied there were chosen: Germany, Spain, France, Italy, Poland and the United Kingdom. To compare the socio-economic level of development of regions in the EU Member States the indicators of GDP per capita and unemployment rate were used. With the help of the matrix approach to identifying problems of the countries’ regions in the context of their socio-economic development, there were carried out corresponding calculations by regions of the chosen countries and compared with the values of the relevant indicators of the matrix to the average for the EU and the country studied. On the basis of using the theory of “center-periphery” and grouping the regions in EU Member States by levels, it is proved that a greater level of GDP per capita on the EU scale is achieved by the EU Member States, which have more economically developed center with an appropriate kernel (or the number of regions).

Article is written in Ukrainan


Kramarenko R. M., Kiryk M. A.
International Innovation Cooperation with a View to Innovative Development (p. 24 - 30)

Currently the process of globalization in the field of scientific, technical and industrial activity continues to grow. Countries conclude bilateral and multilateral agreements to facilitate cooperation in scientific research and co-financing of capital-intensive innovation projects. Combining competitive advantages of companies is motivated by the government’s policy with respect to attracting foreign direct investments and entering new markets. Despite some discomfort of countries of the world caused by the outflow of knowledge abroad and disturbance of the equilibrium of the trade balance, most of the countries of the OECD have scientific and economic benefits from these transactions. The processes associated with innovations are constantly in the focus of attention of local and foreign experts and are reflected in their works. The aim of the article is to analyze the impact of international integration interaction of countries of the world on innovative development. The forms of internationalization of innovation activities have been analyzed. The main vector of the modern global competition based on scientific and technological achievements and innovations has been determined. The main directions of the internationalization of innovation activities have been revealed and justified.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Mammadov I. R.
The Main Results and Prospects of Construction in Baku (p. 31 - 35)

The most important document determining the main directions of the city development is the General Plan, which is elaborated on the basis of forecasting the innovative development of industrial and municipal enterprises, transport, institutions of science, education, health and culture. Its foundation is the city planning structure, i.e, the locating of industrial enterprises, residential areas, transport schemes, etc. The main aim of this study is summarizing the final data on the implementation of the General Plan of Baku and substantiating the urban development prospects. This aim is being achieved through the advanced planning and construction, choice of rational types of residential buildings, concentration of residential construction, reconstruction of residential areas in the industrial areas that were unhabitable for the population before, improvement of the environment and efficient use of land, development of tourism.

Article is written in Russian


Rayevnyeva O. V., Dubrovina N. A.
Evaluating Competitiveness of Faculties of Higher Educational Establishments in Slovakia (p. 36 - 45)

The problem of competitiveness of higher education, efficiency of its functioning and training graduates of higher educational establishments according to the current and future needs of the market are among the key issues of socio-economic development strategy in EU countries. The aim of the study is to determine the competitiveness of faculties of major higher educational establishments based on the use of the cluster analysis and rating evaluations provided by national experts. The paper describes the methodology of rating evaluation of faculties of higher educational establishments in Slovakia on the basis of such components as: educational process; attractiveness of the program; science and research activities; doctoral studies; attracted grants. Shortcomings of the approach to faculty rating evaluations based on the averaged value have been determined. In order to improve analysis of the competitive positions of individual faculties of higher educational establishments in Slovakia, the cluster analysis was used and the results of breaking the faculties into five groups were presented. To forecast changes in the competitive positions of faculties of higher educational establishments in Slovakia, discriminant functions enabling to determine possible qualitative changes in the state of the faculties’ competitiveness due to external or internal factors have been built.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Semigulina I. B.
The Analysis of Trends in Socio-Economic Development of Poland and its Regions in the Period of the Country’s Membership in the European Union (p. 46 - 55)

The regional policy of the European Union aims to address issues of regional development associated with the decreasing of existing regional imbalances, preventing the emergence of regional imbalances, reducing the gap between the socio-economic indicators of development of various countries and regions, solving problems of territorial development, which are of priority for the development of modern Ukraine. The integration of Ukraine into the European community makes the matters of a detailed study of the EU experience and analysis of the key elements of its regional policy urgent. It also provides for the need to create Ukraine’s own regional policy taking into account the best European principles for the organization of management of regional and local development as well as the modernization of the local self-government system. Most appropriate for Ukraine is to use the best practices of regional policy of the EU member countries, which have successfully passed the transitional stage in their economic development and demonstrate stable positive transformations. Modern socio-political changes in Ukraine, which are accompanied by reforming the principles of local self-government and territorial organization of government at the local level, raise considerable interest on the part of state bodies and public organizations of our country to successfully carried changes in administrative-territorial system in combination with other structural reforms in Poland. Ukraine’s desire to integrate into the modern European Community makes it relevant to study the results of development of Poland and its regions, dynamics of changes in socio-economic indicators for the period of the country’s membership in the European Union.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Yaroshenko I. V.
The Analysis and Evaluation of Trends in the Socio-Economic Development of European Union Countries and their Regions (p. 56 - 67)

The modern development of Ukraine and its regions on the background of the ongoing European integration process requires a detailed study of the experience of forming the European regional policy, positive examples and trends that have contributed to economic growth of the territories and improvement of population welfare of EU countries with a view to their use in forming the own national policy in the country. The EU regional policy, which is called the “unification” policy, as part of the European structural policy is aimed at solving development problems of the territories, primarily, depressive, old industrial, underdeveloped ones reducing the existing imbalances in social and economic development of the regions and preventing the emergence of inter-regional imbalances in the European Union. Studies of the uneven development of a country’s territories are an important part of its government policy. Identification of the main features of the asymmetry makes it possible not only to reveal the current situation with imbalances in the regional potential for sustainable development but also to assess the government’s actions aimed at their elimination. For Ukraine, which sets a goal to integrate into the European community, a detailed study of the experience and analysis of the priority principles of EU countries’ regional policy are very feasible in the formation and implementation of its own regional policy with regard to the best European principles of organization of managing the regional and local development and local government reform. Using the best practices of the regional policy of EU countries in Central and Eastern Europe, which show stable positive change in the socio-economic development, can appear to be of a special value.

Article is written in Ukrainan


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №2-2016

Dovgal O. A., Taran A. Y.
Theoretical Aspects of the Technological Leadership of National Economies (p. 5 - 12)

The main theoretical approaches to forming and defining the essence of the technological leadership of national economies have been considered. At present the global nature of the technological development factor is the main engine of development of economies in most world countries. Changes and improvement of all the elements of productive forces occur and innovations or new developments appear as a result of technological development. Different approaches to defining the essence of the technological leadership have been considered, the stages of its development, theoretical concepts of different scientific schools regarding the impact of the factor of technological development on the overall economic process of national economies have been analyzed. Characteristics of technological modes have been summarized and their influence on the formation of the technological leadership of the world countries has been revealed. The main approaches to identifying the technological leadership of various countries on the basis of calculation of international indices have been considered. The prospect for further research of the problem is a comprehensive study of determinants that reflect the technological leadership and give a general assessment of qualitative characteristics of the formation of its components.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Otenko I. P.
Economic Sustainability in International Business: Peculiarities, Methods and Approaches (p. 13 - 18)

This article is intended as a contribution to the ongoing analysis of economic sustainability in international business. This study is presented with a view toward further understanding and agreement of the key concepts of sustainability. Approaches to sustainability are considered, important benchmarks and essential characteristics of sustainable development in international business are included. The article demonstrates how the concept of economic sustainability can be applied to the business level. The main ideas of the most widespread concepts on resource management are presented. Incorporation of ESG and financial factors in the concept of sustainable investing is considered. Emissions that are responsible for climate change, namely top emitters, key issues and figures are presented.

Article is written in English


Izmaylov Y. O.
Activation of Investment and Innovation Development of Ukraine’s Economy by Improving the Accounting and Analysis of Foreign Investments (p. 26 - 33)

The aim of the article is to justify and present recommendations on improving the accounting and economic analysis of foreign investments for investment and innovation development of the Ukrainian economy. The dynamics of macroeconomic indicators of foreign investments, which have a direct impact on investment and innovation development of the Ukrainian economy, has been analyzed. The main problems of the investment and innovation development have been indicated and systematized and the places of Ukraine in the world rankings in terms of the weak positions of the economy are presented. The explanation of the category of “foreign investments” with a view to their use in accounting and economic analysis is presented. The ways for improving the accounting and analytical procedures of foreign investment to create transparent and clear rules of doing business for foreigners in Ukraine have been offered. There has been proved a positive influence of the presented recommendations on investment and innovation development of the Ukrainian economy.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Kyzym M. O., Salashenko T. I., Borshch L. M.
Prospects for Strengthening the Security of Ukraine’s Energy Supply through Development of Unconventional Natural Gas Production (p. 34 - 43)

The article presents an analysis of the American experience in development of natural shale gas in the US, identifies the causes that led to the shale revolution. Its current state is characterized by achieving the peak production simultaneously with shift in the emphasis from natural shale gas to shale oil. The potential technically extracted gas reserves as well as trends in terms of the growth of conventional natural gas reserves and the development of trade in liquefied natural gas are regarded as global preconditions for enlargement of the shale natural gas output. Natural shale gas can be considered as an alternative project only for liquefied natural gas while, compared to pipeline gas, its production is uncompetitive. The national preconditions for development of the industry of nonconventional natural gas production are determined on the basis of the current trends in Ukraine’s gas market. The main obstacles to the realization of this direction are reduction of the gas needs and liberalization of natural gas trade on the basis of European principles. Economic evaluation of the feasibility of natural shale gas production made it possible to forecast its production cost at the wellhead at different depths and estimate its investment attractiveness in different aggregate states. On the basis of the approbation of the presented methodological approach carried out for the Dnieper-Donets and Carpathian shale basins, it was concluded that the investment attractiveness of the first one is higher, given its reservoir properties and the presence of deposits of non-conventional hydrocarbons in different states of aggregation.

Article is written in Russian


Revak I. O., Ohrymovych M. M.
Activization of Investment Activity in the Culture Sphere as One of the Criteria for Ensuring the Investment Security of Ukraine (p. 44 - 49)

The aim of the article is to study the trends in activization of investments into the culture sphere as one of the criteria of economic growth and ensuring the state investment security. Analyzing successful international experience and systematizing scientific research in this field it was determined that the development of the culture sphere contributes to growth of national productivity and improves the life quality of the population. On the basis of the study of socio-economic trends and statistical data there have been identified the development problems of the Ukrainian culture as a tool for transition to an innovative model of society development. The attention is focused on practical aspects of revival and maintaining a proper state of the cultural heritage of Ukraine as a source of provision of Ukrainian historical symbols, public morals and ethics. As a result of the research it is found that the objects of cultural heritage are the undisputed economic benefit, which has a direct impact on the investment attractiveness of regions.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Slava S. S., Hapak N. M.
The Organizational and Functional Basis of Economic Development of Society and Peculiarities of its Potential Dynamics under Conditions of Decentralization of Power (p. 50 - 57)

The article analyzes the listing of institutions and activities generated by these institutions, which as a whole are intended to stimulate the economic development of society under conditions of decentralization of power. The division of the institutions into government / quasigovernment, educational / scientific and business ones has been conducted. Quantitative and structural relations of organizational measures aimed at local economic development in view of these institutions have been analyzed. It was found that most of the organizational measures contributing to economic development of society can be taken by government / quasigovernment and business institutions, which amount to 85 % and 80 % respectively from the whole defined list of the institutions. Scientific and educational organizations have only 35 % in this structural distribution. That is, for today the functional content of the measures, which contribute to the local economic development, is more important for educational and scientific organizations since in this regard they are by 2-2.5 times behind the government and business institutions. This study also evaluates the level of coordination of the organization measures aimed at the local economic development in view of the institutions. In this case the most intensive measure will be creating municipal clusters, which can unite over 75 % of local institutions (13 institutions of 20 determined by the study). Collaboration with scientific, educational and finance and credit establishments is also characterized by a quite significant level of coordination — 50 %. Measures related to intensification of the business activity (business councils, fundraising, dissemination of best practices, etc.) in view of their using by the considered institutions amount to about 30 %. The inter-municipal cooperation, organization of public hearings, e-governance and development of credit relations in society have the lowest level of coordination (about 6 %), which corresponds to 1 institution.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Chechetovа-Terashvili T. M., Udovenko A. O., Loseva O. H.
The New Methodology for Analyzing the Regulatory Impact of a Legal Act: Pros and Cons (p. 58 - 66)

Advantages and problems of the existing methodologies for analyzing the impact and monitoring of the effectiveness of a regulatory act (RIA) have been evaluated. The urgency of developing a methodological approach for evaluating the quality of the implementation of projects of normative legal acts by RIA regulatory authorities has been justified. There have been analyzed RIAs of the projects of normative legal acts developed by the regulatory authorities in March and April 2016 for their compliance with the new methodology. An algorithm of applying the methodological approach has been formed. The integral index has been proved and coefficients of the completeness of qualitative and quantitative evaluations have been determined. To carry out the assessment, the state and local regulatory authorities were selected. The conclusions as to the completeness and quality of the analyzed RIAs, as well as their compliance with the provisions of the new methodology have been made. Proposals to improve existing techniques have been developed.

Article is written in Russian


Yaroshenko I. V., Semigulina I. B.
Implementation of the Decentralization Reform in Ukraine: Current Issues of Public Administration Modernization (p. 67 - 73)

The need of all parts of the modern Ukrainian society for structural transformations determines the direction of development of the country and its territories. One of such priority vectors is the decentralization reform, efficiency of which is inextricably linked with the changes that occur in all vital for the development of society and every individual public areas: public administration, judicial system, law enforcement bodies, deregulation and development of business, banking and financial sectors, innovation and trade policies, education, medicine and other sectors of the economy and social sphere. The initiated in Ukraine transformations, including the decentralization of public power, require further legislative changes and desire of all public institutions to ensure their effective implementation through public initiative and public support. Monitoring the course of the decentralization reform in Ukraine has demonstrated little actual results of its implementation. Today an adequate legislation framework concerning the powers, resources and responsibilities has not been established yet. It is advisable to carry out a profound theoretical and practical study of the world and Ukrainian experience, develop and introduce an own science-based system of power decentralization with consideration for historical, ideological, cultural, social, economic, geographical and other features of the country, while taking into account the best practices, which can be effectively used.

Article is written in Ukrainan


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №3-2016

Mizjuk B. M., Kitz R. R.
Efficiency of Mechanisms for Ensuring Financial Stability in Developed Countries (p. 6 - 14)

The aim of the article is to identify relationships between the monetary policy and long-term financial stability. The main method of the study is retrospective analysis of macroeconomic and financial performance of the United States and other developed countries. It has been shown that neither Neo-Keynesian nor monetarist approaches are able to provide long-term financial stability under simultaneous low levels of volatility of GDP and inflation. In addition, the policy of inflation targeting in developed countries is not able to eliminate the risk of significant macro-economic recessions. The article states that the cause of the recessions is a systemic risk growth due to concentration of financial resources in the banking sector and in the hands of owners of non-financial corporations. This concentration has two effects: 1) growth of moral hazard at crediting; 2) decrease in the effective demand on the part of households. Redistribution of financial resources among different macro-economic groups of agents does not happen in a short period of time and is a result of the long-term monetary policy. Since the modern economic statistics has certain methodological problems with calculation of the Gini coefficient, such indicator as a share of wages in GDP is proposed in the article for studying the dynamics of uneven distribution of financial resources in the United States. The conducted retrospective analysis of the US monetary policy showed that an important system indicator of uniformity of financial resources distribution among macroeconomic agents falls out of sight of regulators. Distribution of macroeconomic risks depends on distribution of financial resources in the system, which determines its financial stability. The article justifies the need for developing the monetary policy methods that would simultaneously minimize the volatility of the GDP, inflation and maintain a uniform distribution of financial resources at an acceptable level.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Kornіvska V. O., Yaremenko V. H.
Current Transformations of the Eurozone Financial and Institutional Space (p. 15 - 23)

The article presents the results of studying the processes of reforming the financial and institutional space of the eurozone, which in the long run creates the foundation for basic changes, which will result in not just a post-crisis “restart” of the system of financial institutions, but the creation of new mechanisms of liquidity circulation and in view of this the restructuring of the current model of investment process from mainly the banking into the market (stock) one. On the basis of the analysis of the credit cooperation between banking institutions of the eurozone and the real sector there made conclusions about the limited effectiveness of the current model of investment support due to the inability of the dominant financial institutions (banks) to enable economic recovery under conditions of the gap between the complementary interaction of banking institutions and the real sector of the economy. The paper justifies that the gap between the complementarity of the banking system and the real sector emerged also in connection with the formation of the negative in the general economic context complementarity of the state and the banking sector, which greatly distorts the competitive foundations of the European financial and institutional space, contributes to the banking lobby, hinders the process of reforming the banking space, which will be of limited effectiveness in the future.

Article is written in Ukrainan


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №4-2016

Bocharova Y. G.
The Competitiveness of Infrastructure of World Countries (p. 6 - 12)

The aim of the study is to identify and analyze the most competitive countries in the world in terms of development of their infrastructure in general and its individual components. The article considers the significance and role of infrastructure in ensuring the economic growth of developing countries and their competitiveness, solving global problems of humanity (including poverty), improving the quality of life of the population. The analysis of the infrastructure state and features of its development in the world and Ukraine has been carried out. Based on the analysis of the global competitiveness ranking of WEF, the most competitive countries of the world in terms of the development level of their infrastructure in general and its individual elements have been determined. Using the calculation of the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, a matrix of intercorrelation of indices of world countries’ competitiveness in 2010-2015 (according to the method of the WEF) has been composed; the most significant determinants of the countries’ competitiveness in terms of the infrastructure development have been identified.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Buleev I. P., Bryukhovetskaya N. Y.
Formation of the Institutional Environment in Transforming Economies of Postsocial Countries (p. 13 - 21)

The article analyzes the formation of market relations as a natural process of capitalism development in the countries that have shaped a socially oriented capital economy that meets purposes of the formation of postindustrial society. The forms and methods of transition to the market economy of former socialist countries (FSCs) are considered in comparison with the classical scheme of development. It is found that major failures in the reforming occurred as a result of using the outdated liberal economic theory, neglecting the peculiarities of FSCs development, mentality of the society and population, which resulted in the formation of unpromising oligarchic ruling class disregarding interests of people. The causes of the systemic social-economic crises in FSCs and measures to overcome the market failures are justified. There outlined the ways out of this situation by means of forming modern institutional environment, escaping institutional risks and traps.

Article is written in Russian


Deyneka T. A.
Confrontation of Major Counteracting Forces in the Globalized Market as a Process of Resolving / Intensifying its Contradictions (p. 22 - 27)

The aim of the article is to study the process of resolving/intensifying the contradictions of the contemporary globalized market by means of identifying the counteracting forces that are critical for the period of the formation of post-industrial relations. It is proved that in the context of globalization and gradual establishment of principles of the postindustrial economy, the confrontation of major counteracting market forces is undergoing changes, which is manifested through the processes of resolving/intensifying the market contradictions. There identified the content of these changes, in particular: if at early stages of the market development the confrontation “state—market” was of decisive importance, at the present time it is the confrontation “civil society – TNCs”. There described a multivariate character of the interaction between the major market forces — states, international organizations, TNCs, civil society (both with the effect of achieving community of their interests and with the effect of their disunity). It is proved that the confrontation between the civil society and international corporations objectifies in the globalized economy a new form of contradiction between labor and capital that corresponds to the post-industrial content of economic relations and, in particular the content of property relations.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Zhaldak H. P., Shulgina L. М.
Marketing Standards for Enterprises and Higher Educational Institutions: the EU and Ukraine (p. 28 - 34)

The article considers the marketing standards for enterprises and higher educational institutions in the EU and Ukraine. The basic components of the formation of the marketing standards in our country and the European Union member countries are identified, some legislative restrictions on advertising in certain EU countries are systematized. The features of the EU standards are determined. The main idea of the article is to examine the European marketing standards, determine the level of their adaptation to the national ones, as well as collect data on the effectiveness of the application of marketing standards to higher educational institutions, provide quality education and establish collaboration with the European partner universities. The general understanding of the quality of education, use of harmonized approaches and evaluation criteria is important for the European integration. The majority of national organizations have a number of difficulties associated with the undeveloped system of indicators oriented towards the client and other interested parties. The application of the EU marketing standards sets an appropriate vector of development for the domestic economy and opens up new competitive opportunities.

Article is written in Ukrainan


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №1-2017

Goncharenko N. I., Kravets M. A.
Features of the Institutional Structure of the Polish Stock Market under Conditions of Transformational Changes in the Global Financial Environment (p. 8 - 14)

Under modern conditions of transformational changes in the global financial environment, the international stock market acquires stable features of activization of investment activity, formation of a large network of professional participants in the stock market and its multi-level institutional structure, expansion of the range of trade in securities, access of economic entities of different countries to financial resources and diversification of mechanisms of concentration, etc. There conducted a study of peculiarities of the institutional structure of the Polish stock market in the context of transformational changes in the global economic system. The factors influencing the volume of capitalization of the Warsaw Stock Exchange are analyzed; the dependence of the capitalization of the Exchange on foreign portfolio investments in shares of Polish issuers is revealed. Based on the results of own calculations of multiple correlation coefficients, the level of dependence between capital stock market indicators and assets of such financial institutions in Poland as investment and open pension funds, insurance companies is determined, and a significant interconnection of assets of investment and open pension funds and insurance companies is revealed. The obtained results can become a basis for institutional investors in the process of making effective decisions on expanding the range of trading in securities.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Dovgal O. A., Dovhal G. V.
Global Innovation Space: Prerequisites, Specifics and Tools of Formation (p. 15 - 20)

The aim of the article is to study the prerequisites, specifics and tools of formation of the global innovation space under current conditions of development. On the basis of the generalization of the world’s scientific developments, the article considers processes of formation of the global innovative space, activation of innovation policies of different countries, optimization of state innovation activity as a factor of competitiveness of the national economy. It is substantiated that in the modern world an increasing role is played by global technological cooperation and partnership arising when several different companies decide to implement a joint project, which main goal is development of knowledge and creation of innovative products or exchange of scientific and technical information. This process is one of the ways to form the global innovation space, determines strategies for development of both innovation processes and globalization of the economy as a whole. It is concluded that in the final reckoning the processes in the field of innovative development have their own logic, which corresponds to the current trends in the development of the world economy. Innovation, on the one hand, brings together economies of different countries and, on the other, leads to aggravation of international competition in the world.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Kazakova N. A., Perepelytsia A. S., Sidorov M. V.
Innovative Development of the Informatization of the Hotel Business in the Context of Globalization of the World Economy (p. 21 - 25)

The aim of the article is to study the identification of features of the international hotel business regulation using information technologies. There considered the influence of information technologies on management of the hotel, since it is directly related to the increase in the work efficiency of both an individual manager and the company as a whole, as well as their influence on the company competitiveness in today’s market. The use of computer networks, Internet and Internet technologies, software products of end-to-end automation of all hotel business processes, which today are not just a matter of leadership and creation of competitive advantages but also survival in the market in the near future, is analyzed. The conclusion is made on the need to use information technologies as a tool for regulating international business processes in the hotel sector.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Kalyuzhna N. G.
The Approach to Defining Gravity Factors of Influence on the Foreign Trade Relations of Countries (p. 26 - 31)

The aim of the article is to determine the gravity factors of influence on the foreign trade relations of countries on the basis of the results of the comparative analysis of the classical specifications of the gravity model of foreign trade and the domestic experience in gravity modeling. It is substantiated that a gravity model is one of the tools of economic and mathematical modeling, the use of which is characterized by a high level of adequacy and ensures prediction of foreign trade conditions. The main approaches to the definition of explanatory variables in the gravity equation of foreign trade are analyzed, and the author’s approach to the selection of the factors of the gravity model is proposed. As the first explanatory variable in the specification of the gravity model of foreign trade and the characteristics of the importance of economies of foreign trade partners, it is proposed to use the GDP calculated at purchasing power parity with the expected positive and statistically significant coefficient. As the second explanatory variable of the gravity equation of foreign trade, it is proposed to use a complex characteristic of the “trade distance” between countries, which reflects the current conditions of bilateral trade and depends on factors influencing the foreign trade turnover between countries — both directly (static proportionality of transport costs of geographical remoteness), and indirectly (dynamic institutional conditions of bilateral relations). The expediency of using the world average annual price for oil as the quantitative equivalent of the “trading distance” index is substantiated. Prospects for further research in this direction are identifying the form and force of influence of certain basic gravity variables on the foreign trade relations of certain partner countries and determining the appropriateness of including additional factors in the composition of the gravity equation of foreign trade.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Natorina A. O.
Online Customization of Retailers’ Activities (p. 32 - 37)

The aim of the article is to develop recommendations on correct online customization of retailers’ activities in the online space based on results of studying and analyzing trends in digital activity of consumers under real time conditions and taking into account the factors directly influencing buyers’ purchasing from corresponding online retailers. The trends of changes in digital forms of contacting consumers in different countries and regions of the world are studied, and their access to the digital content with details of gadget types and devices is analyzed. The level of digital activity of consumers in the online space is diagnosed in accordance with the consumer inclusion index using the GfK methodology. It is grounded that retailers are advisable to look for new tools of online customization with mandatory consideration of consumer preferences, which depend on the influence of various factors on their behavior. It is found out that a high level of online confidence in a retailer acts as a catalyst for purchasing on the Internet, and factors influencing it are identified. The prerequisites for successful online customization of retailers’ activities are considered, and categories of behavioral patterns of potential buyers to achieve the most effective digital promotion of retailers in the online space are proposed. The aspects of online customization that guarantee the necessary level of competitiveness of retailers for effective functioning in the online space are justified.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Yasynska N. A., Sichko S. M.
Globalization Components in the Formation of National Financial Systems (p. 38 - 47)

A logical parallel is drawn between the evolution of the global economy and the global financial system through the prism of typology and modernization. It is revealed that the processes of transformation of the financial system cause destabilization of the global economy. The genesis described in the article made it possible to identify the relationship between the process of financialization and the redistributive effect. As a result, it can become the main influencing element in changing civilizational concepts — from the evolution of society to the creation of a new economy with a changed financial and economic paradigm. But the existence of such a factor as the evolution of society, the result of which is new products and goods, is accompanied by a decline in the values of financial and economic indicators. The calculated general financial and economic indicators confirmed the importance of the current national financial practices in the modern evolution of the global economy. It has been studied that the manifestation of the socium reaction to every civilizational transition is the improvement of existing methods of economic management and the formation of new institutions, which leads to the problem of the “institutional stalemate”. The result of the study made it possible to identify the globalization components that influence the formation of national financial systems in terms of institutional stabilization.

Article is written in English


Yaroshenko I. V., Semigulina I. B.
The Analysis of Strategic Priorities for the Development of European Cities (p. 48 - 54)

Countries of the European Union have gained rich experience in developing and implementing a balanced socio-economic and regional policy. The development of regions and individual territories and cities in these countries is given special attention, since this direction provides one of the greatest opportunities to create a synergetic effect by reducing the unevenness of regional (territorial) development and the effective use of existing potential and, as a result, ensures the welfare of citizens of the territories, decrease of socio-political tension in the society, creation of new jobs and increase of competitiveness of the national economy as a whole. The integration of Ukraine into the modern world community envisages development and implementation of an effective regional policy in view of integrated and rational use of all multipurpose resources and depends on a comprehensive evaluation of the existing social and economic potential of the country as a whole and its regions. Also it involves identification of sources and scales of development, definition and assessment of long-term options for socio-economic development of the country and individual territories based on the rational allocation of productive forces with consideration to specialization and individual characteristics. In the context of introducing the reform of power decentralization in Ukraine, the responsibility of local authorities for ensuring effective management in many areas of life is becoming ever greater. Sustainable and efficient economic development of territories is a guarantee of a high level of the population life quality in all its aspects. At the same time, it is necessary to fully understand the main problems of communities, cities and ways to solve them in the context of global trends in the development of territories, in particular cities.

Article is written in Ukrainan


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №2-2017

Grytsulenko S. I.
The Investigation of the European and Eurasian Markets for Technologies: Ukraine in Regional Patent Spaces (p. 7 - 18)

The exclusive right to intellectual property acts as a universally recognized tool of the modern competitive struggle for the markets for goods and technologies, which actualizes the issue of Ukraine’s participation in this process. For this purpose, based on the data from the European, Eurasian and world patent statistics, the article measures the level of inventive activity of Ukraine in the nearest regional markets for technologies. Among the relevant quantitative and qualitative indicators for the evaluation of the patenting in Ukraine and leading countries of Europe and Eurasia there analyzed: the total volume and dynamics of filing patent applications; the total volume and specific weight of patent portfolios; the high-tech patenting. Based on the results of the study, the corresponding conclusions are drawn. In particular, the huge gap between Ukraine and leaders of inventive activity predetermined the absence of any significant influence of the country on the development of innovative markets in Europe and Eurasia. The decrease in Ukraine’s striving to succeed in the above mentioned ones leads to the loss of both promising markets and entire sectors of the national economy.

Article is written in Russian


Deyneka T. A.
Challenges, Contradictions and Risks of the Modern Global Economy (p. 19 - 25)

The aim of the article is to reveal the nature of challenges, contradictions and risks of the global economy. The stages of the reproduction cycle of global contradictions are considered with singling out the “conflict” stage. There described the categorical apparatus of the research with determination of the following meaningful sequence: global challenge ? global problem ? global risk ? global crisis ? global catastrophe. The forecast of the WEF for 2017 on global trends and global risks is analyzed. The system nature of global risks is identified as a defining feature of their modern manifestation. The system approach to determining the source of origin of modern challenges, contradictions and risks of the global economy is used. It is proved that the nature of the system unproductiveness (crisis-induced character) comes from the depths of capitalist relations and finds its modern manifestation through the self-denial of capitalism and the contradictions caused by the evolution of global capital. The idea of the inevitability of the global catastrophe that awaits humanity is refuted and the possibility and necessity of applying long-term safety management strategies on the part of the harmonized society is argued.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Yevtushenko V. А., Raкhman M. S., Mangushev D. V.
The Impact of International Tourism on the Economic Development and the Image of an Individual Country (p. 26 - 34)

The aim of the paper is to study the dynamics of economic indicators of international tourism, the main problems, trends and prospects of the industry development in the world market and an individual country, the role of the country’s image and its impact of on the creation of a competitive tourist product. There considered the dynamics of statistical indicators of the international tourism structure, in particular the tourist flow, contribution to the world GDP and employment, and national economies. The analysis of the status of the tourist industry of Ukraine in the context of the main economic indicators and hotel infrastructure is conducted using the example of Kharkov region. The role of the image and its influence on the competitiveness of the national tourist product is revealed. On the basis of correlation analysis, forecast models for a number of indicators are created. The present trends in the development of the tourist industry of Ukraine are identified and recommendations on improving its competitiveness are given.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Kuzmin O. Y., Krevs V. Y., Yastrubskyy M. Y.
Mechanisms of Attracting Investments within the Activity of Higher Educational Institutions (p. 35 - 40)

Mechanisms of attracting innovations within the activity of higher educational institutions are considered. Features of educational innovations arising from the immanent nature of the sector are characterized. The attention is focused on the applied aspect of educational innovations. The emphasis is placed on the need for rapid adaptation of higher education of the present time to new social realities, civilizational challenges, giving consideration to trends and prospects for human development. The state of introduction of educational innovations in leading European countries and the USA, their orientation to the introduction and promotion of e-learning that has formed a powerful market with characteristics inherent in it is considered. It is pointed up that the growth of the popularity of e-schools has led to global changes in educational systems of many countries of the world. The situation of the popularization of e-learning in China and Africa is studied. There identified trends in the development of e-learning that in the long term should ensure continuous education throughout life. The state of introduction of educational innovations in the system of the higher school of Ukraine is described. The prospects of innovative processes in the sphere of education are outlined, and promising directions of attracting educational innovations are indicated.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Qoqiauri L. G., Gechbaia B. N.
The State Regulation of Innovation Activity at the Present Stage (p. 41 - 47)

The article discusses the necessity of state regulation in the field of development of innovations and technologies at the present stage. The main directions of the state innovation policies in developed countries of the world are studied and analyzed. Special attention is paid to the objectives of the national strategy for development of science and innovations and to searching the ways for fulfilling this strategy. Apart from these specific problems, the work considers the issue of the state regulation and support of further introduction of innovations and increase of the so called “entrepreneurial” role of the state.

Article is written in English


Telnova H. V.
The Analysis of Corporate Tax and Personal Income Tax in European Countries (p. 48 - 54)

The aim of the article is to reveal the relationship between the rates of corporate tax and personal income tax and the pace of economic development. The existence of the open financial market under conditions of globalization leaves its imprint on forming the vectors of development of the tax systems in the countries. Thus, the optimal corporate taxation creates a competitive and investment-attractive climate, facilitates encouraging foreign investments and locating economic activities. The study made it possible to establish the absence of a direct link between the tax rates and economic growth. At the same time, a linear relationship between the tax rates and the tax burden is revealed. On the basis of the presented mathematical expression, it can be concluded that an increase in the personal income tax causes an increase in the tax burden, and an increase in the corporate tax — its reduction. The cluster analysis of the corporate tax and the personal income tax in European countries allowed to justify the determinants of successful economic development presenting the formation of the vector of the tax policy in the aspect of moderate taxation of individuals and the need for low taxation of corporate profits.

Article is written in Russian


Shymanska K. V.
The Trends in International Migration of Human Resources under Conditions of Geo-Economic Transformations (p. 55 - 60)

The aim of the article is to reveal the influence of geo-economic transformations on the trends in international migration of human resources as an element of the resource potential of countries and regions. The current state of geo-economic transformations is analyzed, and their influence on the processes of international migration of human resources is revealed. The relevance of analyzing international movement of human resources, not labor ones, in building the geo-economic strategy of a country or a regional grouping is justified. The connection between the international migration of human resources and the trends in development of individual countries and regions (oil exporting countries, newly industrialized countries and least developed agrarian countries) is determined, the general patterns of migration flows in these countries are described. Furthermore, the topical issues in studying international migration of human resources in the context of the directions of geo-economics identified by scientists are formulated. It is determined that the regional migration policy should contribute to maximizing the benefits of migration of human resources for the development of the region and the use of immigrants in the countries of the region as an economic resource that becomes strategically important under conditions of geo-economic transformations.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Iurchenko S. A., Iurchenko О. Y., Vorkueiva K. А.
Peculiarities of International Migration of Population in Europe at the Present Stage (p. 61 - 69)

Under conditions of globalization, international migration of population is steadily growing and significantly affects the socio-economic development of countries and regions. The aim of the article is to identify the features of international migration of population in Europe. The migration trends in the region and its subregions are analyzed. It is shown that Western Europe is leading according to the number of migrants residing on its territory, but the maximum growth of migrants for the period of 1990-2015 is observed in Southern Europe. The proportion of women and population of active age groups is increasing in the structure of migrants. In recent years the flow of refugees has increased. The impact of the migration crisis on the economies of the host countries is analyzed. Calculations of coefficients of multiple correlation demonstrated the level of dependence between the indicators of migration and GDP, population size, share of urban population. It is concluded that it is necessary to develop migration policies at different hierarchical levels.

Article is written in Russian


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №3-2017

Dovgal O. A., Taran A. Y.
Institutional Means for Ensuring the Technological Leadership of Germany in the EU Economic System (p. 6 - 13)

The article focuses on the analysis of institutional means for ensuring the technological leadership of Germany in the economic system of the EU. The main idea of all the programs and strategies of the European Union is to ensure competitive and dynamic development. Germany occupies a leading position in many respects both in the European and global technology market, which is due to the country’s strong scientific potential and the high level of spending on R&D. The article compares the tasks of the national high-tech strategy of the FRG and the strategy of the EU Innovation Union. There generalized the functions of the main components of the system of scientific associations of the Federal Republic of Germany, which are an effective tool for implementing the state policy in the field of innovation investment. An approach to qualitative assessment of the level of information interaction of the subjects in the system of R&D institutes and the diffusion of technologies using the criterion of information communication is proposed. A prospect for further research on this issue is a comprehensive analysis of the main components of Germany’s innovation strategy in the EU economic system.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Rudyka V. I.
The Analysis of the Experience in Commercialization of Indirect Coal Liquefaction Technologies in the World (p. 13 - 19)

It is substantiated that, taking into account the world trends in the development of fuel and energy complexes, in the near future the most preferable direction in using solid fossil fuels will become not just their burning but advanced thermochemical processing, which will result in obtaining such end products as substitutes for natural gas, electricity, and synthetic analogues of hydrocarbons. There analyzed foreign experience on commercialization of indirect coal gasification technologies, among which the technologies of traditional and plasma gasification are singled out. The advantages and disadvantages of these technologies are systematized, and the hypothesis about better prospects for using the technology of plasma gasification of coal in comparison with the traditional analogues that are based on the Fischer-Tropsch process is put forward.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Khanova Y. V., Skibina S. O.
Sustainable Development of EU countries: Assessment Methodology and Indicators (p. 20 - 32)

The aim of the article is to substantiate the methodology and indicators for assessment of sustainable development in EU countries at the present stage. The article suggests the use of certain indicators for assessment of sustainable development of EU countries: for economic evaluation – Index of Competitiveness and Index of Economic Freedom; for social evaluation — Life Quality Index, Human Development Index, Index of Knowledge Societies; for environmental evaluation — Environmental Sustainability Index and Environmental Efficiency Index. Each of the selected indexes in EU countries is analyzed. The methodology for calculating the ratio of the economic, social and environmental components of sustainable development for EU countries is presented. Emphasis is placed on the significant regional diversification of sustainable development and its components across EU countries, there identified countries of the strong, medium and weak sustainability.

Article is written in Ukrainan


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №4-2017

Yermak S. O.
Descriptive Characteristics of Inclusive Growth as an Innovative Vector of the Socio-Economic Development (p. 8 - 14)

The article examines the experience of recent years, which indicates an increase in the unevenness of incomes and social inequalities in the process of development of scientific and technological progress, modernization of the economy and economic growth. That is, there arises not only the problem of sustainability of economic growth, but its inclusiveness as well. The differences between the extractive and inclusive models of the economy are given, the very concept “inclusiveness” is considered as the involving of all strata of the population, without any distinctions and limitations, in the process. There studied the concept of inclusive growth creating maximum opportunities for all strata of the population to find employment and participate in all spheres of the country’s life and ensuring an equitable distribution of labor income. The basic components and characteristics inherent in inclusive growth as a basis of social and economic development are formed. The Inclusive Development Index (IDI) and the place of Ukraine in terms of IDI and GDP per capita among developing countries in 2017 are analyzed.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Kotlyarevskyy Y. V., Trotskyi T. V., Dyachenko M. O.
Progress in the International Financing of Sustainable Development Projects and Resolution of Global Ecological Problems (p. 15 - 23)

The article considers the current state and prospects for the development of financial and investment mechanisms in the planning and implementation of environmental global international projects and programs. In particular, the main provisions for the formation of the concept of sustainable development in the context of investigating green investment as a form of international financing for sustainable development projects are outlined, and relevant international experience are presented as well. A theoretical and methodological, and retrospective analysis of forming the conceptual and categorical apparatus of the green economy and green investments is carried out. The applied financial and economic aspects of the formation of mechanisms for international financing to fulfill the obligations under the Kyoto Protocol are studied, specifics of the institutionalization of the organizational and financial mechanisms of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) are determined, as well as the prospects of their influence on the national economy are examined.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Maliuta I. A.
Modern Integration Processes in the Asia-Pacific Region: the Formation of Trans-Regional Mega-Agreements (p. 24 - 30)

In the 21st century, especially in the last decade, new intercontinental integration projects appear on the global stage with a high potential for influencing the regional economic structure and at the same time bearing certain challenges for the international geo-economic and geo-political map of the world. Comprehensive new-generation inter-regional agreements are being formed, such as the TTP, the TTIP, the RCEP, the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement between Canada and the EU (CETA), the Japan-EU Economic Partnership. The Asia-Pacific region has been an active participant in the creation and promotion of mega-regional trade agreements. Mega-regional trade agreements in the Asia-Pacific region, namely the TTP and the RCEP, are analyzed as mega-projects with an unprecedented scale of liberalization within the framework of the agreement that include provisions complementing the WTO framework or extending beyond it. There identified reasons for the emergence of mega-regional trade agreements and prospects for the implementation of these projects, as well as possible consequences for the international economic system. It is established that new trans-regional projects, providing certain advantages to the participating countries, simultaneously carry both opportunities and challenges for the world economy. The latter are associated with the threats of crowding the countries that do not take an active part in the integration processes out of the global chains of value creation as well as of the processes of international trade.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Mikaelian S. G.
The Disposition Parameters of the Technological and Innovation Gap in the Global Economy (p. 31 - 35)

The aim of the study is to specify the disposition parameters of the technological and innovation gap in the global economy and determine the directions for overcoming it. It is proved that the process of technological asymmetry is reflected in the technological and innovation gap in the global economy. The positions of the countries-innovation leaders are clarified with the attention being focused on the growth of China’s influence through its efforts in technological innovations. There described the transformation of the positions in two planes: production of and trade in high-tech products. A hypothesis about the change in the nature of innovations during the last decade is confirmed. It is proved that the affordability of the formation of advanced technologies in China has become a reason for its transformation into the powerhouse of the world economic development. There identified and characterized the directions for bridging the gap between economies, which include increasing investment on the global innovation scale; promoting the spread of technologies and their adaptation; ensuring an unimpeded flow of talents and knowledge; using intellectual property rights to promote innovation for the poor, improve the innovation efficiency; entering markets.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Pugachevska K. S.
Tools for Export Promotion in the Context of Globalization (p. 36 - 41)

A comparative analysis of the rate of growth in exports of goods and GDP is carried out, and goods exports to GDP ratio in the context of the developed countries, developing countries, and countries with the transition economy is calculated. This allows to make a conclusion about a decrease in importance of exports as a key engine of the world economic growth during the past years. The legal basis of the WTO’s activities in terms of state support for exports is described. The main reasons for the emergence of a conflict of interests between countries with different levels of economic development concerning the use of individual protectionist barriers are revealed. Potential long-term consequences of the growth of export orientation under conditions of openness of national economies are identified. The measures and tools of the country’s export promotion in foreign markets are studied. It is grounded that under conditions of destabilization of global trade regulators, effective export promotion is a mechanism for increasing the competitiveness of the national economy of Ukraine. Prospects for further research in this area are the determination of instruments to stimulate exports, which have the greatest impact on the export orientation of certain economic activities.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Khanin I. G., Polyakov M. V.
The State Strategies for Building the Knowledge Economy: the Transformation Vector and Group Features (p. 42 - 49)

The aim of the article is to analyze the state strategies for building the knowledge economy, determine the directions of transformation and group features of the developed countries and the most economically powerful developing countries. Attention is drawn to the modern world context of historical circumstances affecting the state strategies for the transition to the knowledge economy, the changes in patterns of economic growth and the new stage of globalization associated with the development and dissemination of knowledge. In this regard, there singled out a number of global megatrends covering scientific and technical activities, international trade in high-technology goods and knowledge-intensive services, international migration of labor, etc. There also noted the change in the paradigm of rivalry and the “architecture” of the global economic leadership. The indicators of scientific and technical activities in several countries are analyzed, which proves the preservation of asymmetry. The results of the analysis of the strategies for building the knowledge economy in a number of developed countries (the US, EU countries, Germany, France, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Israel) and developing countries (China, India, Malaysia, Brazil, South Africa, Mexico) are presented. Their participation in the world scientific progress and innovation process is characterized, as well as the main directions of transformations in terms of the transition to the knowledge economy (new industrialization, development of science and education, improvement of innovation systems, development of international scientific and technical cooperation, etc.). One of the factors of structural changes at all levels is macro innovations. Within the framework of the proposed concept, three types of such innovations are distinguished: scientific and paradigm, structural, and transformational. Their relationship with the foreign economic strategy of the state is established.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Chmutova I. M., Andriichenko Z. O.
International Experience in Reforming the System of Higher Education Governance in terms of Increasing the University Autonomy (p. 50 - 56)

The aim of the article is to summarize the international experience of reforming the system of higher education governance and develop directions that will contribute to increasing the effectiveness of the Ukrainian model for governance of higher education and ensuring its autonomy. There identified common elements and trends in European higher education reforms: greater autonomy for higher education institutions with less direct administrative intervention; greater emphasis on private rather than public funding; emphasis on the quality and effectiveness of education. The tools for implementing reforms in the European higher education system are identified: the New Public Management (NPM) model, governance through networks, and new forms of governance. The changes in the university autonomy of European countries for the period of 2010-2016 are summarized. The content of the reforms in terms of increasing the autonomy of HEIs in the countries of Asia is disclosed. Possible vectors for reforming the system of higher education governance in Ukraine are identified: introduction of a model for funding HEIs on the basis of combining a one-time full budgeting and financing by results; assigning universities ownership of their buildings and their sale in the market; strengthening the decentralization of government control of higher education; development of legislative bases for the self-sufficiency of HEIs; inclusion of external stakeholders in decision-making governing bodies of HEIs; maximum involvement of students in decision-making.

Article is written in English


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №1-2018

Rechka K. M.
Summarizing the Main Directions of Economic Growth and Development of Agriculture in Countries with Market Economy (p. 7 - 14)

The aim of the article is to determine the main directions of economic growth and development of agriculture in general. The economic development of the agricultural sector in countries with market economy, namely in the US and EU countries, is analyzed. Based on the analysis of works of a number of academic economists, the advantages of large agricultural enterprises over small ones are identified and summarized. As a result of the research, it is revealed that the most significant factors that influence the economic development of agricultural enterprises are their size and forms of ownership and management. At the same time, it is proved that only an increase in the scale of production does not ensure an increase in the economic effect. The increase in the scale of production should be accompanied by improvement of production technologies and perfection of the forms of intraeconomic organization of labor, as well as specialization and cooperation. Summing up all the issues of the economic priority of large agrarian enterprises discussed above, we can formulate the following conclusions. The provision on the operation of such economic laws as “identity of property and labor”, as well as “the law of the advantage of large enterprises” is scientifically justified. Having studied the main directions of economic growth in countries with market economy, it is proved that cooperation is the most effective type of management. This should be a priority and promising vector for our country.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Siryk Z. O.
The Ways of Using Foreign Experience of Intermunicipal Investment Cooperation (p. 15 - 21)

The content and nature of intermunicipal investment cooperation (IMIC) are disclosed in the article. The aim of the article is to study the foreign experience of intermunicipal investment cooperation with a view to further introduction of local self-government into domestic practice. By analyzing and summarizing the scientific works of many scientists, in which the general experience and mechanism of intermunicipal cooperation is considered, the main features of the reasons for the existence and promotion of intermunicipal investment cooperation are revealed. Some foreign practices of the existence of intermunicipal investment cooperation are analyzed. There made a critical analysis regarding the forms of implementation of such cooperation. Features of the mechanism of functioning of various models of such cooperation are revealed. It is substantiated that the intermunicipal investment IMIC is not a fairly common practice and direction of cooperation between territorial communities and their government bodies. The legislation of most of the analyzed countries does not establish clear rules that would administer or regulate IMIC to an extent required by the practice of territorial management and development of territories. It is determined that a large number of forms, models and methods of implementing IMIC, despite even a certain rarity of their application, attests to the most important characteristic feature of it. It is stated that the following forms of IMIC should be considered as the most effective with regard to domestic practice of organization of local self-government and financial flows: establishment of a separate intermunicipal institution (body) authorized to manage or regulate the implementation of investment processes and administration of investment processes by concluding an administrative agreement.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Kholiavko N. I., Kurochka V. O.
The Trends of Financing and Commercialization in the System of Higher Education in Ireland (p. 22 - 27)

The aim of the article is to determine the current trends in financing the higher education system in Ireland and identify the applied basis for the commercialization of the results of university research. The processes of modernization of the higher education system in the Republic of Ireland are analyzed. The role of higher education and science in ensuring economic growth of the country is disclosed. It is determined that the key vector in the modernization of the Irish higher education system is the improvement of the quality of educational services. Particular attention is paid to studying the financial aspects of the development of higher education in Ireland. Taking into account the pan-European tendency to reduce the amount of financing from the state budget, the necessity of diversifying the sources of financing for activities of Irish universities is substantiated. Under conditions of information economy, there is a growing demand of the business sector for results of scientific research. The authors note the priority of intensifying the commercialization processes, transferring innovation developments and inventions of university scientists to the real sector of the national economy. Prospects for further research are studying the leading experience of countries of the world in the effective modernization of the system of higher education; identifying the best world practices for the commercialization of research results of higher education institutions; defining approaches to their adaptation and directions of effective implementation in Ukraine.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Cherkas N. I.
Studying the Factors of Economic Growth in Countries of Central and Eastern Europe (p. 28 - 35)

The aim of the article is to study the impact of macroeconomic, technological and institutional indicators on economic growth of countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) using a panel data model. A sample of 12 CEE countries for the period 2006-2015 is analyzed. The following methods are used: 1) ordinary least squares (OLS), 2) fixed effects model (FE); 3) random effects model (RE). As a dependent variable there selected GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity, as an independent one — the exchange rate, export of high- and low-tech products, import of high-tech products, innovations. There used additional control variables: foreign direct investment, government efficiency, human capital, the Gini index, and public debt. The results of the study show that the devaluation of the monetary unit adversely affects the economic growth. Asymmetric results of the impact of high-technology and low-technology exports on GDP are obtained. The development of innovation and the improvement of the quality of human capital demonstrate a positive significant impact in terms of all specifications. The obtained results confirm that European integration supports non-price competition of CEE countries in the world market of high-tech products through participation in production networks of the EU-15.

Article is written in Ukrainan


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №2-2018

Ballack Emad
The Medium-Term Forecast of the Development of Integration among Countries of the Middle East and North Africa (p. 8 - 15)

The aim of the article is to analyze the current stage in the development of integration among countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Systematizing and summarizing the works dedicated to the problems and prospects of their participation in regional integration groups (RIGs), there considered the possibilities of expanding trade and economic relations, which, together with the participation in the World Trade Organization, have provided an opportunity to forecast further development of foreign trade policies of these countries. As a result of the study, it is revealed that in general, MENA countries have similar development problems, which can be divided into two groups: general economic ones, which are associated with differences in the levels of economic development of Arab countries with different resource support, and institutional ones. It is proved that integration is not sufficiently well established and is still acting as a trend — MENA countries continue to implement various “catch-up” scenarios using traditional directions — access to markets and increased emphasis on trade. There analyzed key priorities of the development strategies of Saudi Arabia (Strategy 2025) and the UAE (Economic Vision of Abu Dhabi 2030), aimed at the modernization of the economies, their complete transition to renewable energies through introducing recent innovations, creation of a competitive private sector, increase of the significance of non-oil sectors of the economy that have competitive advantages. It is determined that the common feature for these strategies is that the main source of the modernization is public finance in the form of holding companies and public-private partnerships using BOT (build-operate-transfer) schemes with the participation of state capital in various sectors and the capabilities of “collaborative institutions”. And in the long run, regional integration will retain its priority over global liberalization. Further research will be related to the attempts of Arab scholars aimed at uniting Islam, the state, and the market economy of the Western type as the main condition for the further development of MENA countries.

Article is written in English


Kalyuzhna N. G., Yakovchenko V. S.
Transparency in Interstate Trade and Economic Cooperation: Essence and Attributes (p. 16 - 23)

The aim of the article is to define attributes of transparency in interstate trade and economic cooperation as a set of its necessary and sufficient features, based on the study of approaches to the interpretation of the relevant term. The necessity of considering transparency as a fundamental principle in interstate trade and economic cooperation is substantiated. The approaches to interpreting transparency in the field of public administration and interstate cooperation are investigated. The functioning of the principle of transparency within the framework of activities of international organizations and the interpretation of the concept of transparency by domestic and foreign scientists are analyzed. The matrix of synonymy and secondariness of attributes of transparency and the hierarchy of the formation of attributive characteristics of transparency are developed. The attributes of transparency of trade and economic cooperation are defined as a set of its necessary and sufficient features. It is justified that transparency should be considered as a fundamental principle of interstate trade and economic cooperation, the main attributive characteristics of which are transparency, informative value, openness, publicity, and accountability. It is proved that the compliance of Ukraine’s foreign trade policy with certain attributes of transparency will contribute to predictability of foreign trade, openness of activities of participants in trade procedures, as well as economic growth, increase in competitiveness and financial stability of the state both at the national and international levels. There generalized an idea about the need to study theoretical and practical aspects of transparency in foreign trade policy of the state. Prospects for further research in this area are the assessment of possibilities for ensuring the compliance of Ukraine’s foreign trade policy with the attributes of transparency.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Opalko V. V.
The Ideology of Causes of Inequality and Contradictions of the Global Economic Development (p. 24 - 30)

The aim of the article is to identify and formalize causes and criteria of socio-economic inequality, develop an integral indicator of inequality under current conditions of global development using the criteria-based approach. There applied the following methods: the generalization and formalization methods – in studying causes of inequality, the methods of abstraction and mathematical analysis – in constructing the covariance matrix of inequality criteria. Based on the analysis, it is established that inequality results from specific economic and social conditions, has a multilevel structure and is a multidimensional category by origin. The causes of inequality are argued, including prestige of the profession, property status, wages, income, wealth, education, etc. Inequality is a relative assessment of development that is considered in the context of social and economic dimensions of development, which is associated with the distribution of wealth, property, capital, income, economic power, social services. It is established that the transformations taking place in the modern global world play an important role in changing the ideology of inequality. To calculate the integral index of socio-economic inequality, there proposed a criteria-based scientific methodological approach, which is adapted to the current conditions of development, uses a set of analytical indicators (decile and quintile coefficients; Gini, Palma, Keitz indices; happiness index, human development index) and can be applied at any level.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Rudyka V. I., Lelyuk O. V.
Generalizing the Results of Foresight Studies on the Development of Markets for Liquid Hydrocarbons across the World and Forming Consensus Forecast (p. 31 - 37)

The article is dedicated to the systematization of forecast trends in the development of liquid hydrocarbons across the world, as well as the formation of a consensus forecast for this area of energy use. There analyzed foresight studies carried out for individual organizations as well as the demand for liquid hydrocarbons, its consensus forecast being formed. The regional and sectoral structures of the world consumption of liquid hydrocarbons are determined, and their consensus forecasts are formed. The current trends in the consumption of liquid hydrocarbons and the extraction of crude oil are considered. The forecast trends in the expansion of the raw-material basket for the production of liquid hydrocarbons are analyzed. It is shown that the world oil production will remain the dominant source of supply of liquid hydrocarbons. The forecast of oil production in the world is formed. There carried out a comparative analysis of the data of different energy foresight studies on the world oil production. Using the consolidated forecast, its regional structure and consensus forecast are formed. Since forecasting oil prices is an integral part of making prognosis both of the market of liquid hydrocarbons and the entire energy landscape of the future, the forecasts of oil prices in the studies carried out for individual organizations are considered, and their consensus forecast is formed. Based on the study, the main trend in the sphere of liquid hydrocarbons and key trends in the long-term development of this sphere of energy use are highlighted. It is proved that the world oil market in the long term becomes even more concentrated, while the market for liquid hydrocarbons is undergoing significant diversification associated with the expansion of production and consumption of non-oil fuels. The low oil prices in the global market are revealed to be an obstacle to substitution of oil raw materials, as well as for the development of non-conventional oil resources.

Article is written in Russian


Khanin I. G., Polyakov M. V., Bilozubenko V. S.
On the Relationship between the Concepts of the Knowledge Economy and the Digital Economy in the Formation of a New Paradigm for the Development of the World Economy (p. 38 - 43)

Attention is focused on the fact that the modern world enters a period of complex transformations associated with overcoming the accumulated problems of an economic and non-economic nature as well as with the transition to a new paradigm for the development of the world economy. One of its foundations is the model of the knowledge economy. On the other hand, the progress of information and communication technologies (ICT) and their penetration into all spheres of society has created the conditions for the formation of the so-called digital economy. This also transforms modern economic systems and acquires global significance. As a result, the concepts of the knowledge economy and the digital economy intersect both in theory and in practice. The determination of their relationship is an actual scientific and practical problem from the point of view of explaining and forming the new paradigm for the development of the world economy. The essence and features of the knowledge economy as a new type of economy are specified in the article. It is substantiated that this term more fully and accurately reflects the specificity of the new stage of social development and becomes the basic one. The transformation influence of ICT on the modern economy, which leads to the formation of the digital economy, is noted. The essential features and characteristics of such an economy as a new functional model of the economic system are determined. The specifics of digital transformations changing the forms of economic organization are considered. An explanation of the relationship between the concepts of the knowledge economy and the digital economy and their complementarity in the formation of the new paradigm for the development of the world economy is presented. This is ensured by the fact that they change the models of economic growth; ensure structural and functional transformation of systems of social production; become the basis for the creation of new economic mechanisms. The expediency of implementing the provisions of the adopted Concept for the Development of the Digital Economy and Society of Ukraine for 2018-2020 is noted. It is suggested that such documents (in the field of digital economy development) be directed at building the infrastructure of the knowledge economy and ensuring its key processes, especially in the field of science and education.

Article is written in Ukrainan


THE PROBLEMS OF ECONOMY №3-2018

Dovgal O. A., Serdiuk H. V.
Modern US Trade Protectionism and the Prospects for the Functioning of the Integration Association of NAFTA (p. 6 - 12)

The aim of the article is to analyze the background and manifestations of modern US trade protectionism and, as a result, problems regarding the prospects for the functioning of the integration association of NAFTA. The article analyzes the background and manifestations of modern US trade protectionism. It is substantiated that it is not so much the issue of protectionism, which is put in the basis of the foreign economic policy of the current US administration, as the achievement of national interests at the expense of state regulation on a predominantly bilateral basis. At the same time, it is important for the US foreign economic policy to build vectors of economic interaction within the framework of North and South America as one of the most important priorities of the administration. The article concludes that the US in its foreign trade policy will reshape the system of relations on the American continent on the basis of interstate agreements, including in the form of free trade agreements (FTAs) or regional trade agreements (RTAs), actually implementing the transition to multipolarity in international economic relations. The prospects for further research on this problematics are a comprehensive analysis of modern US trade protectionism with consideration for other countries and integration associations of the world.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Kuznetsova N. B.
European Experience in Implementing the Concept of Learning Cities (p. 13 - 18)

The aim of the article is to consider the sequence of formation of the concept “learning cities” and practical steps for its implementation in the world, as well as to study the European experience in the construction of learning cities. An analysis of scientific works of leading European researchers in the field of regional policy-making and practice of introducing lifelong learning has made it possible to determine the role of the educational sphere, training, and human resources as the main sources for the development of learning cities. Based on studying the experience of developed European countries in the construction of learning cities, the author identified the main factors for the effective creation of learning cities and the sequence of their transformation into learning ones. The author’s definition of the concept “learning cities” is proposed. Prospects for further research are to study the impact of learning cities on the development of human capital and the formation of the creative sector of the economy in regions.

Article is written in Russian


Raкhman M. S.
Attracting the Tourism Potential of Ukraine to the “Unloading” of the World Flows (p. 19 - 28)

The article highlights the study of ways and possibilities for attracting the domestic tourism potential in accepting part of the growing world tourist flow to solve the problem of the “overloading” of famous cultural monuments and wonders of the world. The progress of activities on developing the tourist brand, its relationship with the tourist image and the position of Ukraine in the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index are considered. The trends in structural changes in the tourist flow of the country for 2006–2017 and factors that influence them are investigated. There carried out an analysis of the performance of the tourism industry of Ukraine: in the context of subjects by the number of enterprises and full-time employees and income as well as the dynamics of direct and general contributions to GDP and the employment rate in the country. Statistical indicators of the volume of expenses of domestic tourists and foreign visitors as well as preferences of the tourist flow as to the purpose of traveling in the domestic and foreign markets are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the structure of foreign trade in tourism services by the purpose of traveling and the geographic preferences of domestic tourists as well as the volume of sales of travel packages. As a result of the SWOT analysis, the strengths and weaknesses of the domestic tourism market are identified, and opportunities that can be turned into capacities under certain conditions are given; the PEST analysis revealed threats that can be turned into advantages. Improving the marketing capabilities of tourism enterprises is possible provided that they solve the problems of promoting and stimulating the tourism product, improving its quality and assortment; controlling, implementing the CSR principles and regular marketing research. The process of interaction with partners and the role of public-private partnership in the development of tourism are considered. Recommendations for achieving a positive result to attract foreign visitors to Ukraine are given.

Article is written in Ukrainan


Tsapko-Piddubna O. I.
The Principle of Inclusion in Modern Concepts of Economic Growth (p. 29 - 36)

In the scientific literature and in creating development policies, inclusive economic growth is considered the basis for sustainable social and economic development of a country, since in this concept of economic growth the attention is shifted from the GDP growth rate to the distribution of wealth among the people as well as their economic opportunities. Given the scientific relevance of the topic and the practical need for the transition of countries to sustainable social and economic development, the article considers the evolution of scientific thought in the interaction of such economic categories as growth, poverty, and inequality; systematizes and highlights the key aspects that form the essence of the concept of inclusive growth; identifies the features that differentiate it from other modern concepts of economic growth (in particular, sustainable growth and ending poverty); suggests the ways to promote inclusive economic growth. It is determined that economic growth is inclusive if it focuses on the widespread improvement in the welfare of the people and the expansion of their economic opportunities. With inclusive growth, an increase in the welfare of all segments of the population is achieved by stimulating full and productive employment, when each member of the society is involved both in the process of creating GDP (in accordance with the principle of equality of economic opportunities) and in fair distribution of economic results. In order to promote sustainable inclusive growth, government economic policies should be directed at reducing economic inequality, using the tools of social, fiscal, monetary, and labor market policies.

Article is written in Ukrainan


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